The sacrifices included "nesachim" -- pouring wine on the
altar. The Leviíim sang special songs during the nesachim.
Commenting on the verse "Wine, which causes Hashem and man to rejoice"
(Shoftim 9:13), the Talmud asks: ĎWine may make manís heart rejoice,
but how does it make Hashemís heart rejoice? From here we see that song
must be recited over the (pouring of the) wine.í (Brochos 35a.)
It is apparent that the song served an exalted purpose...
Although brochos are to be recited before consuming food, the brocho
over wine is often more than an ordinary blessing. Various mitzvos involve
formulations declared over a cup of wine; for example, Kiddush, Bris Milah,
Kidushin and Nesuíin (stages of the Wedding Ceremony). Here, the brocha
recited over the wine is a "Birkas Mitzva," a component of the
services (See Rosh Hashanah 29b). In fact, the brocha represents
the song of the altar recited over the pouring of wine. (See Birkas
Refael, Pesach, chapter 72)
The Talmud declared that the Cup of Brocha should
be raised a handís breadth (Brochos 51a). This law was derived from
King Dovidís statement: "I will lift up the cup of salvation, and
will call the name of Hashem." (Tíhilim [Psalms 116:13].) Rashi
(Tíhilim, ibid.) explained that the verse was referring to the sacrifice.
The "cup of salvation" was the wine of the altar, which Dovid
would bring for his thanksgiving offering; the "calling out in the
name of Hashem" referred to the songs of praise that would be recited
at that time. Just as the Leviíim sang at the wine libation of the public
sacrifice, Dovid would sing praises at the pouring of the wine on the altar
for his private thanksgiving offering.
The four main parts of the Pesach Seder are distinguished
by four recitals over wine: Kiddush, Hagada, Bentching and Hallel. The
entire Seder takes on the form of the songs of the altar, which brings
rejoicing in the higher spheres...
The Error in the Song
The Talmud explained the history of two daysí observance
of Rosh Hashanah (Beitza 5a, Rosh Hashanah 35b). Rosh Hashanah
occurs at the beginning of the month. In order to know for certain that
the new moon had appeared, witnesses would report to the court, located
on the Beis Hamikdash grounds. Witnesses would not appear until daytime,
usually after the morning services. Until then, there would be no way of
ascertaining that it was actually Rosh Hashanah.
Every day, the Tamid (perpetual burnt-offering) was
brought in the morning and afternoon. The Leviíim sang the daily song with
the pouring of the wine. At Yom Tov, special songs were recited, rather
than the ordinary, weekday song.
At the first offering on Rosh Hashanah morning, since
the witnesses had not normally arrived yet, the established protocol was
to recite the regular, weekday song. (See Rashi, Beitza 5a.) After
the witnesses would arrive, the Yom Tov song would be said with the later
sacrifice. Since the witnesses usually arrived before the afternoon services,
everything normally went smoothly.
Once it happened that the witnesses had not arrived
in time for the afternoon Tamid. The Leviíim were concerned that the witnesses
would not appear on the first day at all, in which case only the following
day would be Rosh Hashanah (and not the first day). The Leviíim were in
a quandary as to which song to sing, and erred. One version is that the
Leviíim did not recite any song; the other version is that they recited
the week-day song, but the late entrance of the witnesses and the proclamation
of Rosh Hashanah that day demonstrated that the Leviíim miscalculated.
Because of the error in the song, a decree was formulated:
Should the witnesses not appear by the afternoon Tamid, the court would
close for the day; witnesses would not be accepted. Both that day and the
next would be sanctified as Rosh Hashanah.
The full implications of this story, and resulting
two daysí observance of Rosh Hashanah, need to be discussed at a later
date. For now, we will briefly look at one explanation of the incident,
as explained in Chidushei Chasom Sofer (Beitza, 5a.)
First Dayís Musaf of Rosh Hashanah
There is an additional offering on Yom Tov -- the
Musaf. Anticipating that witnesses might suddenly appear, the Musaf of
Rosh Hashanah was brought at its regular time. The nesachim -- pouring
of wine -- was delayed, for it can be performed days later, if need be.
If witnesses should come on the first day, the wine pouring would be performed
at that time, with the Leviíim reciting the song for Rosh Hashanah. If,
however, it would be determined that the witnesses were not coming, the
wine pouring would be performed with the week-day song, and the offering
would instead be considered a "nedavah" -- voluntary offering.
What actually occurred one particular year, could
not have been anticipated. Once, the witnesses came so late, that there
was not enough time for the wine-pouring. As we said, the nesachim can
be performed days later, if need be; however, the song of the Leviíim accompanies
the wine-pouring. Since the witnesses came the first day, they were accepted,
and the first day -- only -- was declared Rosh Hashanah. The song had to
be recited the next day -- with the wine-pouring -- but the second day
was no longer Rosh Hashanah! There remained no choice, but to recite the
week-day song on the second day. Consequently, the Musaf of Rosh Hashanah
took on the form of a different offering altogether, because it was associated
with the week-day song.
Rabbi Yaakov Bernstein
Kollel of Kiryas Radin
11 Kiryas Radin
Spring Valley, NY 10977
Phone: (914) 362-5156