Torah.org Home Subscribe Services Support Us
 
haaros

Haaros

Parshas Shelach 5759

Outline Vol. 3, # 25

by Rabbi Yaakov Bernstein


Last week, we discussed the controversy between the Rabbis and Rabbi Eliezer. The Rabbis ignored the miraculous phenomena that seemed to justify Rabbi Eliezer's point of view. Laws of the Torah cannot be augmented, reduced, or in any way determined by prophetic means.

The fact that someone disputes the court's decision, does not affect the outcome, even if he demonstrates supernatural powers. What happens if, in fact, leaders are shown to be in error?

Leaders' Mistakes: Kohein, Beis Din, Nasi

In the fourth chapter of Vayikra, atonement procedures are given for various leaders: The Kohein, the Sanhedrin, and the King, who mistakenly lead their subordinates in an erroneous path. The great Jewish Leaders are regarded as pure and holy human beings; as humans, they, too, make mistakes, and can make amends.

However, this is regards leaders who err in following the Torah. We can imagine a situation in which the judges follow the Torah precisely, and still make an apparent error -- because their information is incomplete.

Beis Din that Follows Torah but Case is Reversed

According to the Torah, court cases normally require two witnesses. The likelihood that two witnesses, who are interrogated independently, are lying, is minimal. The existence of two concurring witnesses establishes a "chazakah" -- an assumption -- of truth. Of course, it is possible that the witnesses are indeed dishonest, but the indication is that they are truthful.

Conflicting testimony destroys an assumption of validity; all conflicting testimony is rejected. There is, however, one exception. A second group of witnesses, who remove the original group from the scene of the crime altogether, are believed to negate the first group. The invalidated witnesses are called "Eidim Zommemim" -- "plotting witnesses."

If a defendant is convicted on the basis of witnesses, but the case is reversed according to the proper formula -- the original witnesses receive the punishment intended for the defendant. For example: if a defendant is convicted of the death penalty, but the case is reversed, the original, plotting witnesses, receive the death penalty instead.

The Riddle

Here comes the difficulty -- the reversal of the punishment only takes place before any punishment is carried out. For example, if the defendant was already convicted and executed before the witnesses were shown to be false, the witnesses cannot be punished...

The Talmud points out the irony of these rulings: Without having caused a wrongful death, witnesses can be executed; yet, if they indeed caused a wrongful death -- they cannot be punished!

Next issue: Explanations of The Riddle and The Non-Jewish Court


Rabbi Yaakov Bernstein
11 Kiryas Radin
Spring Valley, NY 10977
Phone: (914) 362-5156
E-mail: yaakovb@torah.org

Good Shabbos!


Text Copyright © '98 Rabbi Yaakov Bernstein and Project Genesis, Inc.



 

ARTICLES ON TERUMAH:

View Complete List

Filler Diamonds
Rabbi Yisroel Ciner - 5761

Community Funds for Golden Vessels
Rabbi Berel Wein - 5766

Taking - not Giving
Rabbi Yissocher Frand - 5756

Frumster - Orthodox Jewish Dating

Elevating the Physical
Rabbi Berel Wein - 5774

Are We Men, Or Are We Angels
Rabbi Dovid Green - 5758

A Special Collection for the Sockets?
Rabbi Yissocher Frand - 5761

ArtScroll

A Tabernacle in Your Heart
Shlomo Katz - 5774

Torah Comes Down From Between Two Child-like Figures
Rav Frand - 5768

Symbolism of the Aron
Rabbi Yissocher Frand - 5773

Looking for a Chavrusah?

Teaching Limits
Rabbi Aron Tendler - 5760

Whole Life Insurance
Rabbi Yisroel Ciner - 5757

Put the Torah in Your Terumah
Rabbi Pinchas Winston - 5772

> Tabernacle Building: Sharing Our Wealth
Rabbi Berel Wein - 5771

Make a Home for G-d
Shlomo Katz - 5762

Equally Owned by All
Rabbi Yaakov Menken - 5755

Sanctuaries Are Built
Rabbi Label Lam - 5768



Project Genesis

Torah.org Home


Torah Portion

Jewish Law

Ethics

Texts

Learn the Basics

Seasons

Features

TORAHAUDIO

Ask The Rabbi

Knowledge Base




Help

About Us

Contact Us



Free Book on Geulah!




Torah.org Home
Torah.org HomeCapalon.com Copyright Information