Chesed is chief amongst good midos. It is also the central
principle, around which all other principles of Creation are predicated.
All elements of chesed and love contribute to the upbuilding of the
world; all forms of cruelty give rise to destructiveness.
Things could have been different, claimed the brother of the Maharal
. “Olam chesed yibaneh” – the world will be
built upon chesed. There is no a priori reason why this had to be.
HKBH could have chosen one of His other midos, and spun a world
revolving around it. He chose chesed because it is closest to His
Will. Similarly, when we are instructed to imitate His midos (as
fulfillment of the imperative “You shall walk in His ways” ), Chazal
limit this obligation to the midos of chesed, but none other
. It is through chesed alone that we attach ourselves to Him.
We can perform acts of chesed with our property and our selves.
Greater still is when we rise to the level of becoming the very embodiment
of chesed, when we become chesed personalities. We then
share in the Torah’s description of Avraham, the quintessential person of
chesed. About him the Torah writes, “And you will be a
berachah.” This means, say Chazal, that anyone who was touched
by Avraham, or who dealt with him, or even saw him was blessed, because
Avraham himself had become a berachah. Indeed, the true person of
essential chesed feels for the other, and gives him his entire
heart. When his friend is racked by pain, and his spirit collapses within
him, the chesed personality fulfils with him the spirit of “I am
with him in his trouble.” At times of his friend’s joy, he stands with
him as a partner. The chesed-person influences all who enter his
orbit. He gives everyone his attention, because he loves every Jew as
himself. An aura of love and fraternity accompanies him; it seems as if
his entire being is given over to assist the other. The chesed-
person’s being is shaped by the special nature of chesed, which
ishispashtus. Thus, chesed and love emanate and extend
from him, reaching both near and far. By contrast, the person who lacks
chesed is, by nature, contracted and limited. Whatever capacity he
has to love, he contains narrowly within him, and applies it only to
Besides all of this, an added benefit attaches to chesed. When a
Jew conducts himself in the spirit of chesed, Heaven deals with him
as well with the midah of chesed. The Besht, as well as
others, emphasized that HKBH relates to people according to midos
with which they live their lives. If they practice cruelty, the
midah of Hashem’s judgment is aroused against them, regardless of
the validity of their justification. Maharal shows at length that
when a person attaches himself to the Goodness of Hashem by directing some
of it to others, Hashem directs some of that very good to the person
Yesod HaAvodah writes that a person should view an opportunity to do
chesed to another as if he found great treasure. Exercising such an
opportunity is a key to successful level, as was pointed out by the Rebbe
of Kobrin. He taught that a day in which a Jew does not perform some favor
or kindness for another is a day not really lived.
One who diligently studies Torah but does not occupy himself with acts of
chesed “is as if he did not have a G-d.” What he lacks,
explains Rashi, is Hashem standing over him protectively. Without that
protection, he lives his life as if he did not have a personal
relationship with G-d. Were he to practice chesed as well, his
affairs would be conducted from Heaven through protocols of
chesed. Thus, his umbrella of protection would be more complete,
working to assure his safety even when he did not otherwise deserve to be
tikun - the long process of bringing a flawed world back to the
rarified state of Gan Eden before Adam’s sin – began with Avraham. He
started the process of reestablishing spiritual order to a world of chaos,
of sohu va’vahu. His work was followed by the six Shepherds
who distilled other midos.
His contribution, of course, was the perfection of the midah of
chesed. chesed is associated with no figure in Chumash as
strongly as with Avraham. Why, then, does chesed not appear on the
Mishnah’s short list of characteristics of Avraham’s disciples?
Instead, the Mishnah speaks of a generous eye, a humble spirit, and a meek
We might answer that when the Mishnah speaks of disciples of Avraham it
refers to Avrahams-in-training, those who aspire to become like him. The
Mishnah doesn’t describe Avraham so much as how a person should position
himself to be able to imitate his great chesed. The three traits
mentioned by the Mishnah are the important precursors to chesed
activity. Similarly, when the Mishnah describes the polar opposite traits
and links them to Bilam, it assigns the blame for stunted chesed
development to those traits. (Their common denominator is a heightened
sense of self. Nothing stands in the way of true chesed as
anochiyus, attaching great importance to ones own self. And nothing allows
the natural chesed within us to flower and flourish as much as
diminishing that sense of self.)
This analysis is appealing, but doesn’t stand up to scrutiny. The facts
indicate otherwise. It may seem reasonable that we need a generous eye, a
humble spirit, and a meek soul to do chesed, but arguably this is
not so. We note much chesed performed by people who are far from
The Mishnah, of course, is correct – and so is our interpretation. What we
see does not amount to a counterexample to the Mishnah’s thinking. The
Mishnah speaks specifically of those who wish to become chesed
personalities, whose chesed flows from their essential selves.
People can perform chesed for reasons both more and less laudable.
People who have not yet become full chesed personalities can be
moved by circumstances to respond with chesed. That does not make
them master of chesed, and certainly not chesed
personalities. They are not walking in along the path of our forefather
In a word, ordinary people can do chesed, but only special ones are
chesed at their cores. (To be continued.)
Based on Nesivos Shalom, vol. 1, pgs. 98-101
Tehilim 89:3 Although the verse literally means “Forever will your
kindness be built,” it is often used the way it is above to illustrate the
centrality of chesed.
See, similarly, Maharal, Nesivos Olam, Nesiv Gemilas Chasadim, chap.1,
and Pachad Yitzchok, Rosh Hashanah 31:4-6, 15
 Tehilim 91:15
 Spreading out, or extension. Some midos are focused narrowly,
usually within. Others – especially chesed –force the person to
extend his world beyond himself.
Nesivos Olam, Nesiv Gemilas Chasadim, chap. 3
Avodah Zarah 17B
All together, they number seven, and are familiar to us as the
Ushpizin, the spiritual guests in the Sukkah. Each corresponds to one of
the seven lower sefiros.