Lag Ba'Omer will soon be with us. A fair question at this point is:
What is Lag Ba'Omer all about? The Pri Tzadik (also known as R'Tzadok
HaCohen) addressed this question as follows.
The Zohar tells us that Lag Ba'Omer commemorates the petira (the
passing away) of R' Shim'on Bar Yochai. You may wonder: why do we
make make the yahrzeit -- i.e., the day in which a great Talmid
Chacham is niftar -- into a "hilula" (celebration)? Because, as
Chazal tell us, the talmidim truly grasp the teachings of their Rebbe
only after his petira. (Perhaps because when their Rebbe was alive,
the talmidim felt that they could always rely on him.)
Another question. Why do we make such a big thing out of R'Shim'on
Bar Yochai? The answer is straightforward: because R'Sim'on bar
Yochai bore the quintessence of R'Akiva's teachings (Gitin, 67,a).
And R' Akiva, in turn, was the quintessence of Torah she'be'al peh
(the Torah that HaShem taught Moshe Rabeinu at Sinai orally. Moshe
Rabeinu then transmitted those teachings to Bnai Yisroel only by the
spoken word). Thus, the Medrash tells us that HaShem revealed to R'
Akiva (and to his colleagues) teachings that He had not revealed even
to Moshe Rabeinu!
What Lag BaOmer is, then, is a celebration of R' Akiva, who
exemplified Torah she'be'al peh AND -- I add -- much, much more. Thus,
R' Akiva was the living example of an ahm ha'aretz who started
learning late, but -- through his mesiras nefesh and the mesiras
nefesh of his wife -- became gadol ha'dor. Likewise, by his example,
R' Akiva tauight extraordinary courage and emuna. After he lost his
many thousands of talmidim, he started teaching Torah all over again
-- this time to a mere five talmidim. Also, he carried Bar Kochba's
armor. But when events proved him wrong on that issue, he was still
able to die -- tortured by the Romans -- in a exemplary demonstration
of Kiddush HaShem.
Good, so we know that R' Shimon bar Yochai, R' Akiva's prime talmid,
was niftar on Lag Ba'Omer.We also know that Lag BaOmer is the day when
we commemorate the petirah of R' Akiva. Apart from his other features
of greatness, R' Akiva was the quintessence of Torah shebe'ahl'peh. At
this point, a basic question comes to mind. Would it not make much
more sense to celebrate Torah she'be'al peh not on the day when R'
Akiva's talmid (R'Sh'B'Y') was niftar, but rather on the day on which
R'Akiva (himself) was niftar?
The Pri Tzadik answers this question by pointing to a brutal fact. R'
Akiva had defied the Romans; and for that, the Romans had killed him.
In view of the the Romans' continuing domination of Eretz Yisrael, it
was totally out of the question to commemorate R'Akiva's petira; for
the Romans would have treated such a celebration as rebellion. Hence,
the shift, as a cover, to R'Shim'on Bar Yochai, R' Akiva's prime
APPENDIX -- More from the PRI TZADIK
What Lag BaOmer is, then, is a celebration of Torah she'be'al peh.
This interpretation fits in neatly with the Sefiras Ha'Omer on which
Lag BaOmer occurs. That is, each of the Sefiros is associated with a
quality that characterized one of our Tzadikim. Thus, Chessed is
associated with Avraham; Gevura, with Yitzchok; ... and Hod (Luster),
with Aharon. And not by coincidence, the Sefira that comes on Lag
BaOmer is the Sefira of "Hod She'Behod" -- building on Aharon's unique
quality of Hod.
Note further connections that link Aharon HaKohein with Torah
she'be'al peh. Thus, in his first encounter with HaShem, Moshe
declined the leadership role that HaShem offered, claiming that his
speech defect disqualified him from the job. To which HaShem answered
that Aharon, Moshe's brother, would do the talking: "Ve'hu (i.e.,
Aharon) yihe'yeh le'cha le'peh".
Likewise, after Moshe received the Torah, Aharon's (spoken) teaching
was a prime channel through which the Torah was transmitted to Bnai
Yisroel. And Aharon's descendants, the kohanim, continued in this key
role of transmitting the Torah she'be'al' peh. Thus, the navi
(prophet) Mal'achi (2, 7) generalizes: "Sifsei kohen yish'meru da'as,
ve'Torah ye'vak'shu mi'pihu". (That is, "The lips of a kohen will keep
knowledge, and people will seek Torah from his mouth".)