The following is a discussion of Halachic topics related to the Parsha of the week.
For final rulings, consult your Rav.
Remember the Shabbos day (Exo. 20:8)
The mitzvah of Tosefes Shabbos HOW and WHEN:
The majority of Rishonim hold that the mitzvah of mosifin michol al
hakodesh, starting Shabbos early in order to incorporate a small part of
the weekday into Shabbos, is a mitzvas Assai min Hatorah, a Biblical
command (1). Although this seems to be a relatively easy mitzvah to perform,
a mitzvah which most people assume that they perform routinely and
correctly, that may not always be the case. In order to understand what the
problem may be, we must answer the following questions: How much time
should be added as "tosefes Shabbos"?
The rishonim do not clearly define any amount of time as the minimum
addition required to fulfill this mitzvah. Latter-day poskim suggest
various amounts of time - ranging from a minimum of two (2),
four (3), and
five (4) minutes, up to twelve (5) or even fifteen
One who is
particular to fulfill the mitzvah according to the views of all poskim is
to be commended (7). Tosefes Shabbos is equally incumbent upon men and
HOW EARLY CAN ONE BE MEKABEL TOSEFES SHABBOS?
One may be mekabel Shabbos as early as plag ha'Mincha, which is an hour and
a quarter (zmanios) before sunset. One may not be mekabel Shabbos before
that time. Any kabbolas Shabbos made before plag ha'Mincha, including
lighting candles, is null and void and must be repeated.
WHAT IS THE PROCEDURE FOR BEING MEKABEL TOSEFES SHABBOS?
The correct, l'chatchillah manner of performing this mitzvah is to state
that one is being mekabel Shabbos for the sake of the mitzva of tosefes
Shabbos (9). This statement can be made in one of the following ways
Reciting the entire Kabbolas Shabbos,
reciting Mizmor Shir L'yom Hashabbos,
reciting Boee Beshalom,
davening the Shabbos Maariv,
lighting candles (for women) (11),
or even by stating aloud: I am mekabel Shabbos for the sake of the mitzvah
of tosefes Shabbos (12).
According to some poskim (13), it is sufficient to be mekabel Shabbos in
one's mind - without actually expressing it in words.
There are poskim who imply that the mitzvah of tosefes Shabbos is not
dependent on actual [either spoken or silent] kabbalah; as long as one
refrains from doing forbidden work before sunset, it is considered as if he
added some time on to the Shabbos day and he has fulfilled the mitzvah
HOW LATE CAN ONE BE MEKABEL SHABBOS?
According to our custom, Shabbos begins at sunset. Once the sun sets it may
already be night according to the halachah- the beginning of the Shabbos
day. Obviously, in order to perform the mitzvah of adding to the Shabbos,
one must be mekabel Shabbos before sunset. After sunset, one is not adding
to the Shabbos since it is already Shabbos - regardless of his kabbalah.
The vast majority of shuls, especially during the winter, daven Minchah on
Friday evening 10-15 minutes before sunset and then begin the Kabbolas
Shabbos service. By the time Bo'ee Be'shalom is said, it is usually well
past sunset. Thus, the majority of men, contrary to their assumption, are
not fulfilling the mitzvah min ha'Torah of Tosefes Shabbos according to the
opinion of many poskim.
WHY ARE WE NOT MEKABEL SHABBOS BEFORE MINCHAH?
Shulchan Aruch (15) rules that once Kabbolas Shabbos has been said in shul,
Friday's Minchah may no longer be davened. If an individual came late to
shul and answered Borchu or said Mizmor Shir Lyom Hashabbos, he may no
longer daven Minchah, but must rather daven Maariv twice. According to the
opinion of the Mishnah Berurah and many other poskim, this rule applies
also to any expression of Kabbolas Shabbos made individually, such as
lighting candles or to any statement of Kabbolas Shabbos (16).
Once Shabbos has been ushered in, weekday Minchah may no longer be davened
This leaves us with a dilemma: The mitzvah of tosefes Shabbos requires us
to be mekabel Shabbos before sunset. On the other hand, one cannot be
mekabel Shabbos until after Minchah, and most shuls do not finish Minchah
until after sunset. Thus, one is faced with two mitzvos that (apparently)
conflict with each other - davening Mincha or being mekabel Shabbos.
WHAT ARE THE ALTERNATIVES?
Start Minchah earlier, about 20-25 before sunset. This will allow the
congregation to be mekabel Shabbos before sunset; After finishing the
silent Shmone Esrei, an individual may be mekabel Shabbos upon himself. He
may still answer the Minchah kedushah etc. although it is already Shabbos
for him (18). This solution, however, will not help the Shliach Tzibbur who
must repeat the Shmone Esrei; If an individual realizes that he will not be
able to finish the silent Shmonei Esrei before sunset, he should daven
b'yechidus before sunset(19), be mekabel Shabbos, and then go to shul to
answer Kedusha etc. There is a disagreement among latter-day poskim
concerning one who failed to follow any of the above options, and finds
himself - right before sunset - faced with a choice of either davening
Minchah or fulfilling the mitzvah of tosefes Shabbos. Some poskim advise
that he should daven Minchah (20), while others rule that he should be
mekabel tosefes shabbos and then daven Minchah (21).
1 Biur Halacha OC 261:2.
2 Eretz Tzvi 70; Igros Moshe OC 1:96.
3 Avnei Nezer 4:98.
4 Minchas Elazar 1:23; Shu"t Mhrsha"g 38.
5 Siddur Yavetz.
6 Mishnah Berura 261:22 and Biur Halacha, based on Chayei Adam 5:2, says
that tosefes Shabbos together with bein hashmashos (which is about 14
minutes long) is a half hour long.
7 Mishnah Berurah 261:23.
8 See Kaf Hachayim 261:16.
9 Tosefes Shabbos 261:13; Tehillah L'dovid 263:8-10; Chelkas Yoav 30;
Mishmeres Shalom 26:2; Mishnah Berurah 261:21 (as understood by Shone
Halachos 261:3; Shmiras Shabbos Khilchasah 46:2; Az Nidberu 1:1). See Ritva
Rosh Hashanah 9a as a possible source.
10 See OC 261:4 and Mishnah Berurah 21 and 31.
11 Men who light candles are not automatically mekabel Shabbos - Mishnah
12 Possibly, just saying gut Shabbos is sufficient, if by saying 'gut
Shabbos' one means to actually usher in the Shabbos and not merely to
express a greeting - See R' Akiva Eiger OC 271.
13 Bach and Gra quoted in Mishnah Berurah 553:2. Tehilla L'dovid 263:10,
however, rules that this is invalid.
14 See Aruch Hashulchan 261:2; Eretz Tzvi 60; Yabia Omer 7:34. See
Chidushei Ra'ah (Blau) Brachos 26b; Biur Hagra OC 393:2 and Chayei Adam 5:2
as possible sources for this view.
15 OC 263:15.
16 Mishnah Berurah 263:43.
17 Often, people wish their family 'gut Shabbos' before going to shul for
Minchah. One should be mindful not to be mekabel Shabbos with that
statement. If his intention was to be mekabel Shabbos, davening Minchah now
18 Tzitz Eliezer 10:15; Yabia Omer 6:21.
19 Shmiras Shabbos Khilchasa 46:5.
20 Harav S.Y. Elyashiv (oral ruling quoted in Avnei Yashfe 1:56). This is
based on the ruling of Mishnah Berurah that it is forbidden to daven
Minchah after Kabbolas Shabbos. This person must therefore rely on the
poskim quoted above who hold that refraining from forbidden work
constitutes tosefes Shabbos.
21 Eretz Tzvi 60; Mishmeres Shalom 26:2 quoting the Minsker Gadol; Minchas
Yitzchok 9:20; Tzitz Eliezer 13:42; Bris Olam pg. 13. This is based on the
ruling of several poskim that an individual's kabbolas tosefes Shabbos does
not preclude his davening Minchah later.