QUESTION: Once they are lit, may the Shabbos candles be moved [by
one who has not yet "accepted" the Shabbos] from one spot on the table or
in the room to another?
DISCUSSION: L'chatchilah, no. The candles should remain where they
were lit and not be moved from place to place, even within the same room.
It is, therefore, incorrect to light candles in the Succah and then bring
them into the house before the meal is served. But b'diavad, if there is a
compelling reason to move the candles to another place in the same room,
(1 )they may be moved.(2)
[There are poskim who maintain that once Shabbos candles have been lit
they should not be moved(3 )at all [even by those who did not yet "accept"
the Shabbos] even if they will be returned to the same place.(4 )Other
poskim, however, do not consider this to be a issue,(5 )and the custom
seems to follow the more lenient opinion.(6 )Still, unless there is a
pressing need, the candles should not be moved at all in deference to the
more stringent opinions.(7)]
QUESTION: Is it permitted to light one candle from another?
DISCUSSION: Yes, it is permitted. While it is not permitted to use
a lit Shabbos candle to ignite a match or to melt the bottom of another
candle so that it should adhere to the candlestick, it is permitted to use
a lit candle to light another candle.(8 )The best way to do this is to
pick up the unlit candle, light it, and then put that candle back into its
QUESTION: Is it preferable to kindle the Shabbos lights with olive
oil rather than with wax candles?
DISCUSSION: Many early sources speak about olive oil as being the
preferred medium for the Shabbos lights,(10 )as the flame that it produces
is the clearest and the purest. On Shabbos, when we want to avoid anything
that could lead to tampering with the wicks or adjusting the light source,
the Sages preferred the use of olive oil because the light it casts is
superior to that of other oils. Nowadays, however, when wax candles cast
as good - or even better - a light as olive oil, there is no advantage in
using olive oil rather than candles.(11)
QUESTION: What should a lady do if, after kindling the candles, a
gust of wind blows them out, or they tip over and are extinguished?
DISCUSSION: That depends on the particulars:
1. If some or all of the candles blow out before before the lady recites
the blessing over them, she should relight the candles and recite the
2. If some or all of the candles blow out after the blessing is recited,
she should instruct a household member who did not yet "accept" the
Shabbos to rekindle the candles on her behalf.(13 )No blessing is recited
over the second lighting.
3. If there are no household members available to can kindle the lights
for her, or if the candles blow out after sunset (or even before sunset
but after Shabbos has begun for the entire community), she should do
nothing.(14 )If, however, she will be distressed or even merely upset
about not having lit candles for Shabbos, she may instruct a non-Jew to
relight the candles on her behalf.(15)
QUESTION: How has electrical lighting affected the traditional way
of lighting Shabbos candles?
DISCUSSION: The universal use of electric lights has had a twofold
effect on the mitzvah of Shabbos candles. On the one hand, it has made it
easier to perform. On the other hand, it has introduced several halachic
At the time that electricity became commonplace, the poskim debated
whether the mitzvah of lighting Shabbos candles could be fulfilled by
turning on electric lights. There were three different opinions: 1) It is
permissible to use electricity for Shabbos candles and the proper blessing
may be recited(16;) 2) It is not proper to use electric lights for this
mitzvah(17;) 3) It is permissible to use electrical lights, but the
blessing should not be recited over them.(18 )Since there is no final and
definitive ruling on this issue, we must look at the prevailing custom,
which - upon reflection - is a compromise among the three views:
Although the blessing is recited over the traditional candles or oil-
based lights that are lit in the area where the Friday night meal will be
eaten, we nevertheless rely on electricity for the other part of the
mitzvah of Shabbos candles. The halachah clearly states that one is
obligated to have light in any room that will be used on Friday night.
(19 ) Our Sages instituted this so that household members would be able to
safely navigate in the house without fear of injury that would disrupt the
harmony of Shabbos. Today, most homes rely on some electrical source
(night-light, bathroom-light, etc.) to illuminate the areas in which they
will find themselves on Friday night. Thus, they fulfill this part of the
The appropriate procedure, then, is as follows. When the wife is
ready to light candles in the dining room, all the electrical lights which
will be used on Friday night should be shut off. The lights which are
going to be used on Shabbos should then be turned on, with the intention
that they are being turned on for the sake of the mitzvah of Shabbos
candles. The candles should then be lit and the blessing recited over all
the lights in the house, both electrical and otherwise. In this manner,
one fulfills the mitzvah according to all views.
In a situation where using candles would be difficult or dangerous,
such as in a hospital, the poskim agree that one should rely on the
electric lights for Shabbos candles. They should be turned off and then
turned on again for the sake of the mitzvah.(21 ) Whether a blessing is
recited depends on views 1 and 3 quoted above.(22 )No clear-cut custom
exists and one should follow his rav's directives.
Students residing in a dormitory or guests staying at a hotel are
obligated to light Shabbos candles. Even if they light candles in the
dining hall, they are still required to light in the area where they
sleep. Since it is considered unsafe, however, to allow candles to burn in
a dormitory or in a hotel room, we must rely on the electric lights to
fulfill that part of the mitzvah. A small light should, therefore, be
turned off and on in honor of Shabbos before the arrival of the Shabbos. A
blessing, however, should not be made, since the blessing is recited over
the candles which are lit in the main dining room.
Shabbos guests staying at another person's home can technically
fulfill the mitzvah through the lighting of their hosts. Even though they
do not need to light a special candle of their own, it has nevertheless
become customary that all married women light their own candles. Since the
guests are required to have some light in their sleeping area, however,
the proper procedure for them is as follows: Light an electric light in or
near their sleeping quarters, proceed quickly to the dining room and light
candles, and allow the blessing to apply to both acts of lighting.(23 )
An additional issue concerning electricity and Shabbos candles is
the concern of some poskim(24 )whether it is permitted to light candles
with a blessing when the electric lights are on, since in reality one is
not adding any light to the room. Although some poskim defend our practice,
(25)it is best to shut off the lights in the room before the candles are
lit. They should then be turned on by the husband after the candles have
been lit by the wife but before she recites the blessing.(26)
Alternatively, the wife can do both, but she must turn the lights on first
and then light the candles.(27 )
Rabbi Neustadt is Rav of Young Israel in Cleveland Heights. He may be
reached at 216-321-4635 or at email@example.com
1 Or to another room (in the same house) which is being used on Friday
night. See Chovas ha-dar,Neiros Shabbos, 2.
2 Mishnah Berurah 263:4. See also Kinyan Torah 4:26, who opines that
nowadays, when it is obvious that the candles were lit in honor of Shabbos, it is permitted to move them.
3 And, according to some opinions, even touched; see Beiur Halachah 263:14
4 O.C. 263:14, as explained by Magen Avraham, Derech ha-Chayim and Pri
Megadim, quoted by Mishnah Berurah 263:57, who agrees, except when moving the candles is needed for the sake of performing a mitzvah.
5 Chayei Adam and Kitzur Shulchan Aruch do not mention this prohibition at
all. See also Aruch ha-Shulchan 263:25 who rejects this stringency.
6 Tehillah l'David 263:12
7 Minchas Shabbos 75:27.
8 Mishnah Berurah 263:4.
9 To satisfy the opinion mentioned earlier that once lit, Shabbos candles
should not be moved.
10 See Tosfos, Shabbos 23a (s.v. mereish), Sefer Chasidim 272, and Ma'asei
Rav quoting the custom of the Gaon of Vilna.
18 Har Tzvi 2:114 quoting the Rogatchover Gaon; Mishpatei Uziel O.C. 1:7;
Harav M. Feinstein (oral ruling quoted in The Radiance of Shabbos, 2, note
26); Harav S.Z. Auerbach (quoted in Shemiras Shabbos K'hilchasah 43 note
22) maintains that a blessing could be made over a flashlight but not over
21 Rama O.C. 263:4 concerning candles; Harav M. Feinstein (quoted in
Teshuvos v'Hanhagos 2:157) concerning electricity.
22 Harav A. Kotler (quoted in Kochvei Yitzchak 1:2) ruled that a woman who
gave birth in the hospital may light electric candles with a blessing.
Harav M. Feinstein (ibid.) rules that no blessing should be recited.
23 Harav Y. Kamenetsky recommended this procedure for hotel guests as
well; Emes L'yaakov O.C. 263, note 274.
24 Igros Moshe O.C. 5:20-30; Harav S.Z. Auerbach (Shemiras Shabbos
K'hilchasah 43, note 166 and 171); Az Nidberu 1:79; 3:12.
25 See responsum of Harav Y. Halberstam (Kloizenberger Rebbe) in Pnei
Shabbos 263, and addendum to Shulchan Shelomo, vol. 1, pg. 20.
26 Custom at the home of Harav Y. Kamenetsky (Emes L'yaakov, O.C. 263,
note 274). Harav S.Z. Auerbach (after his wife's passing) turned off the
lights, lit the candles and then turned on the lights, so that the
blessing is said on both sources of energy (reported by his grandson in
Kol ha-Torah, vol. 40, pg. 16).
27 Custom at the home of Harav M. Feinstein (The Radiance of Shabbos, pg.