This year, Erev Pesach falls on Shabbos, a fairly infrequent
occurrence. While our lack of familiarity with observing Erev Pesach on
Shabbos may catch us off-guard and cause some confusion, with the proper
planning and know-how it need not be a difficult Shabbos to keep. Indeed,
it actually gives us an opportunity to be well-rested for the seder and to
be able to fulfill the mitzvos of Pesach in a more alert and dignified
manner. The following are some of the frequently asked questions that deal
with the special halachos of this Shabbos:
QUESTION: Why do we burn and sell the chametz on Friday morning
when it is
actually permitted to eat chametz until Shabbos morning?
DISCUSSION: Although Friday is not really "Erev Pesach," in certain
respects we act as if it really is "Erev Pesach." This is done in order to
avoid confusion in subsequent years when Erev Pesach does not fall on
Shabbos. Thus any chametz which will not be consumed before Pesach is
burned or sold(1) no later than 11:34 p.m.,(2) the time that would have
been the deadline had this day truly been Erev Pesach(.3)
But concerning other halachos we do not treat Friday as Erev Pesach.
The paragraphs usually omitted from Shacharis on Erev Pesach are
Kol Chamira, which is a statement that nullifies all of our chametz
is normally recited when the chametz is burned, is not recited this year
on Friday. Instead, it is recited on Shabbos morning after the last
remnants of chametz are gone.
The special Erev Pesach restrictions that apply to taking a haircut
doing laundry after midday, do not apply on Friday(4).
Dishes may be kashered until the onset of Shabbos.
QUESTION: When should the marror and the other seder items be
DISCUSSION: All seder preparations should be done on Friday, since
prohibited to prepare anything(5) for the seder on Shabbos. While
technically the preparations may be done after Shabbos ends and before the
seder begins, this is not a good idea since it unnecessarily delays an
already late start for the seder.(6) Thus the horseradish,(7) charoses,
shank bone, roasted egg and salt water should all be prepared on Friday.(8)
The romaine lettuce should also be washed and checked on Friday.
Care must be taken, however, not to leave the lettuce soaking in water, as
lettuce that was soaked in water for twenty-four hours may no longer be
used for marror.
QUESTION: How do we discard the chametz crumbs on Shabbos?
DISCUSSION: Leftover crumbs on the table, dishes or floor should be
gathered together and then flushed down the toilet. Larger pieces of bread
may be crumbled9 and then flushed down.
If the Sanitation Department will not pick up the garbage before
11:30 a.m., do not place chametz in your trash can.
If the floor needs to be swept,(10) one must make sure that no
chametz crumbs remain on the broom. Since it is extremely difficult to
adequately clean a broom on Shabbos, it is advisable to put away the broom
with the chametz utensils which have been sold to a non-Jew.
QUESTION: Some people use chametz rolls for lechem mishneh on this
Shabbos, and then serve the rest of the meal with kosher for Passover
foods. Which dishes should be used during those meals?
DISCUSSION: The recommended method is to use disposable (paper or
dishes only as long as any chametz is being eaten. After the chametz is
gone, the rest of the meal may be served on Pesach dishes.
QUESTION: In order to rid one's teeth of chametz, is it permitted
them on Shabbos, with or without toothpaste?
DISCUSSION: The consensus of many contemporary poskim is that it is
forbidden to use toothpaste on Shabbos.(11) Their main concern is that
applying toothpaste to the teeth or the brush could result in a
transgression of the prohibited Shabbos Labor of Memareiach, Smoothing.
Brushing without toothpaste is permitted,(12) provided that the
following conditions are met:
Use a toothbrush that is designated for Shabbos use only.(13) Some
poskim require that the Shabbos toothbrush also look different from the
weekday one, e.g., be of a different color or style.(14)
Use a soft brush so as not to irritate the gums and cause bleeding.
[People with extremely sensitive gums who bleed whenever they brush their
teeth may not use a toothbrush at all.]
To avoid the prohibition of Sechitah, Squeezing, a dry toothbrush
be used. It is, however, permitted to rinse the mouth with cold water
first and then use the toothbrush.(15)
The toothbrush should not be rinsed off after it is used unless it is
going to be used again this Shabbos.(16)
QUESTION: Many people do not want to have any chametz in their home
Shabbos. Instead, they use egg matzah(17) for lechem mishneh at both the
Friday night and Shabbos morning meals and recite ha-motzi over the egg
matzah. Is this permitted?
DISCUSSION: Yes, it is.(18) In fact, this is the preferred method
homes with little children who may scatter chametz crumbs around the
house. This is also recommended for hotels, for large gatherings where
Shabbos meals are being served, or for anyone who feels more secure with
having no chametz in the house on Shabbos.
Although usually the proper blessing over egg matzah is mezonos,
when egg matzah is eaten during a full-course meal and substitutes for
bread, ha-motzi is recited.(19) One should eat at least a k'zayis(20)
(about 1 fl. oz.) of egg matzah for each meal in addition to the other
foods served at the meal.
Even when egg matzah is eaten for lechem mishneh one should finish
eating it no later than 10:15 a.m.(21) The other foods served at the meal
may be eaten later.
QUESTION: When is seudah shelishis, the third Shabbos meal, eaten
DISCUSSION: Scheduling the third meal on this Shabbos is difficult,
the third meal is supposed to be eaten after midday. At that time, we may
no longer eat chametz, matzah or egg matzah. Thus, there is no perfect
system for the third meal on this Shabbos.(22) Instead, the poskim offer
two alternatives, neither of which is ideal:
1. Divide the morning meal into two parts - i.e., wash, recite ha-
eat a meal,(23) recite Birkas ha-Mazon, take a break (15-30 minutes),(24)
wash again, recite ha-motzi, eat a meal and recite Birkas ha-Mazon. The
chametz or egg matzah(25) which is used for lechem mishneh at the second
meal, the seudah shelishis, must be consumed before 10:15 a.m.
2. Eat a meal consisting of "other foods," such as cooked matzah-
balls (knaidelech27), meat, fish(28), fruit(29) or a kosher-for-Passover
cholent(30) any time after one-half-hour after chatzos (approx. 1:30 p.m.)
until the begining of the tenth hour of the day (approx. 4:30 p.m). After
that time, one is required to minimize his intake of food so as not to
ruin his appetite for the seder.
Since both of these options are halachically problematic, some
people have the custom of following both procedures, i.e., they split the
morning meal, and then eat a meal of "other foods" after 1:30 p.m.
Points to remember...
Although we do not eat matzah on this Shabbos, the matzos are not
considered muktzeh, since it is permitted to feed small children matzah on
Erev Pesach. It is permitted, therefore, to use a matzah for lechem
mishneh on this Shabbos. Care should be taken that no chametz crumbs
attach themselves to the matzah.(31)
On Shabbos, it is advisable not to cast chametz crumbs to the winds
within an eiruv, as some poskim hold that this may be a violation of the
Shabbos Labor of Zoreh, Winnowing.(32)
The challos which are designated for lechem mishneh should be left in
safe place where children cannot reach them.(33)
A small child who will not participate in the seder may eat regular
matzah this Shabbos.(34)
Before the women begin to prepare for the seder after Shabbos is
they should recite Boruch hamavdil bein kodesh l'kodesh.(35)
1 There are different customs concerning when exactly the chametz is sold
this year, since many people eat chametz and use chametz dishes until
2 All times are for New York City.
3 This custom is only l'chatchilah. If the chametz was not burned by this
time, it may be burned anytime prior to the onset of Shabbos.
4 See Beiur Halachah 468:1.
5 Even a "verbal preparation," such as stating that the Shabbos nap is for
the purpose of being well-rested for the seder, should be avoided; see
Mishnah Berurah 290:4.
6 For the sake of the children, who are a primary focus of the seder, the
seder should begin as promptly as possible once Shabbos is over.
7 The horseradish should be ground and stored in an airtight container
until the seder.
8 When feasible, even the seder table should be set on Friday.
9 Mishnah Berurah 321:30.
10 A soft-bristled broom should be used. A carpet sweeper should not be
used on Shabbos.
11 Igros Moshe O.C. 1:112; Seridei Eish 2:28; Minchas Yitzchak 3:48;
Shevet ha-Levi 5:45; Tzitz Eliezer 7:30. [Although a minority opinion
permits using toothpaste - see Ketzos ha-Shulchan (Badei ha-Shulchan
138:31), Yabia Omer 4:28 and Nefesh ha-Rav, pg. 168 - it is generally
accepted not to do so.]
12 See Minchas Shelomo 2:35:3.
13 Based on Mishnah Berurah 327:10.
14 Minchas Yitzchak 3:50.
15 Igros Moshe O.C. 1:112; Shevet ha-Levi 5:45.
16 Igros Moshe O.C. 1:112.
17 Although egg matzos contain some eggs, they are mainly kneaded with
either apple cider or grape juice.
18Igros Moshe O.C. 1:155. There is, however, a minority view that objects
to eating egg matzah on Erev Pesach; see Nezer ha-Kodesh 52 and Teshuvos
v'Hanhagos 2:211-23 for an explanation of this view. [To satisfy this
view, it is preferable to use egg matzah which is kneaded with grape
19 Mishnah Berurah 168:24; Igros Moshe O.C. 1:56; 3:32; 4:41. See
explanation in Pirkei Moed on Pesach (Harav M. Gifter), pg. 17-19.
20 According to some poskim, it is preferable to eat a k'beitzah (about 2
fl. oz.) of egg matzah, since Al netilas yadayim is only recited over a
k'beitzah or more; see Mishnah Berurah 158:10 and Igros Moshe O.C .4:41.
21 Igros Moshe O.C. 1:155, based on Rama 444:1.
22 Indeed, some poskim hold that there is no mitzvah to eat seudah
shelishis at all on this Shabbos, and that none of the following options
should be employed; Aruch ha-Shulchan 444:6.
23 The more important Shabbos foods should be served during the first
morning meal, as the second Shabbos meal is considered more significant
than seudah shelishis.
24 If time allows, taking a short walk outside between the meals is
25 When using egg matzah at this meal, other foods must also be served;
otherwise ha-motzi and Birkas ha-Mazon cannot be recited.
26 Although it is prohibited to eat matzah on Erev Pesach, cooked or
boiled matzah-meal products are permitted according to all of the poskim.
Fried matzah-meal products, however, should be avoided (see Sha'ar
ha-Tziyun 444:1). Baked matzah-meal products, such as cakes or cookies,
are prohibited; Harav S.Z. Auerbach (Erev Pesach Shechal b'Shabbos, pg.
207); Shevet ha-Levi 8:117.
27 For those who eat gebrokts. Some people eat gebrokts on Erev Pesach
even if they do not do so on Pesach; She'arim Metzuyanim b'Halachah 115:7.
28 Even if they were prepared with matzah-meal. A shehakol is recited over
29 When possible, eating matzah balls - whose blessing is mezonos - is
preferable to eating meat or fish. Eating meat or fish is preferable to
eating fruit; O.C. 291:5.
30 Mishnah Berurah 444:14.
31Igros Chazon Ish 1:188, quoted by Shemiras Shabbos K'hilchasah 55:14.
32 Magen Avraham 446:2; Shulchan Aruch Harav 446:5-6; Maharsham(Derashah
to Shabbos ha-Gadol, 76). Mishnah Berurah, however, is not concerned with
this; see Beiur Halachah 319:17 (s.v. efazer).