The halachah that requires men to be separated from women while davening
in shul has its origins in the procedure followed in the Beis ha-Mikdash.
Our Sages in the Mishnah(1) report that a major "adjustment" was made in
the Beis ha-Mikdash during the festive holiday of Succos. The Talmud
explains that the adjustment consisted of building a balcony over the
men's section so that the women could witness the festivities of Simchas
beis ha-shoeivah. Had they stood where they normally did, the mingling of
the crowds and the festive holiday air would have led to kalus rosh,
excessive frivolity. The Talmud attests that the need for a balcony was so
pressing that its construction was approved even though it is generally
prohibited to expand or modify the original structure of the Beis ha-
Mikdash. The Biblical source for the separation of men and women, says the
Talmud, is found in the verse in Zecharyah in which the prophet foretells
the eulogy of Mashiach ben Yosef, where men and women will be seated
separately. If separate seating is required even at so solemn an affair as
a eulogy, how much more so must separate seating be required on a joyous
Following the example set by our Sages in the Beis ha-Mikdash, the
age-old tradition has been to make a clear division and a separation
between the main sanctuary and the women's section. Some shuls built a
balcony, like the Beis ha-Mikdash had, while others constructed a thick
wall that completely separated the two sections. This arrangement was so
taken for granted, so undisputed, that it is not even explicitly cited in
the Shulchan Aruch as a requirement(2). About a hundred years ago, when
some shuls in Germany and Hungary began to question the need for a
mechitzah, all the leading rabbis(3) strictly prohibited davening in any
shul that lowered or removed the traditional separation between the two
With the mass immigration of Jews to the United States in the late
1800's, many modern synagogues did not insist upon a mechitzah that
completely blocked off the women's section. First Reform and Conservative
temples, and then even more traditional ones, began to gradually lower or
remove the barrier which separated the men from the women. The following
questions were then posed to the venerable poskim in the U.S.: Is this
practice justified? Is a mechitzah halachically required? How high does a
mechitzah have to be?
Reason for the balcony in the Beis ha-Mikdash:
In order to answer these questions correctly, we must first examine
what, exactly, was the purpose of the balcony in the Beis ha-Mikdash. We
explained earlier that a balcony was constructed to prevent kalus rosh,
excessive frivolity. The Talmud does not, however, elaborate on how the
separation was effective in guaranteeing that kalus rosh did not prevail.
There are two possible ways to understand this:
* Kalus rosh prevails when the men can freely gaze at the women. It
interferes with their concentration and profanes the sanctity of the Beis
ha-Mikdash. By seating the women on a balcony over the men's section, the
men can no longer view the women(4). To accomplish this purpose, the
balcony was constructed in one of two ways: 1) The men's section was
directly underneath the balcony, hidden from the women's line of vision.
The women were nevertheless able to see a small clearing in the middle of
the men's section where the few dancers would perform(5). (The majority of
the men did not actively participate in the festivities; they were merely
spectators(6).) 2) The balcony was built above the sides of the men's
section, but it was enclosed with a curtain or a one-way mirror. This
permitted the women to watch the men from above but completely blocked the
men's view of the women(7).
* Kalus rosh prevails when men and women are free to mix socially with one
another. By use of a balcony and physically separating women
from "mixing" with the men, the proper decorum and sanctity of the Beis ha-
Mikdash was duly preserved(8). According to this understanding, then, the
balcony did not completely block the men's view. Rather, it separated the
two sections and prevented the men and women from communicating or
interacting with each other in any way.
The question, then, as it applies to present day mechitzos, is as follows:
Do we follow the first interpretation and require a mechitzah that
completely blocks the men's view, or is it sufficient to have a mechitzah
that divides the two sections in a way that prevents frivolity?
The two views of the poskim:
There are two schools of thought among contemporary authorities as
to the practical halachah. Many poskim(9) hold that the purpose of the
mechitzah is that the men should not be able to view the women.
* The mechitzah must be high enough to completely block the entire women's
* The mechitzah must be made entirely from an opaque material. Glass,
flowers and decorative wood slats are not acceptable for any part of the
* Even a balcony must be completely encircled by a curtain, etc.
As stated previously, this practice was universally accepted,
wherever Jews davened. The women's section, whether in the balcony or at
the back of the shul, was totally separated from the men's. Such a
separation was a fundamental feature of shul architecture, as basic as
positioning the amud at the front of the shul and a bimah in the middle.
It was and still is part of the standard model for a Jewish place of
Harav M. Feinstein(10), however, after establishing that the basic
requirement for separating men and women during prayer services is a
Biblical obligation, holds that the basic halachah follows the second
approach that we mentioned earlier. Although he agrees that it is
commendable and praiseworthy to maintain the age-old traditional
mechitzah, he nevertheless rules that the widespread practice of many
shuls to lower the mechitzah somewhat is permitted according to the basic
halachah. As long as the mechitzah is high enough to effectively block out
any communication or interaction between the men's and women's sections,
it is a halachically valid mechitzah. Accordingly:
* The minimum height for a mechitzah is shoulder-high, which the Talmud
(11) calculates to be 17 to 18 tefachim high. Allowing for a difference of
opinion concerning the exact size of a tefach, Harav Feinstein rules that
a 66-inch mechitzah is permitted(12), while in extenuating circumstances
60 inches will suffice(13). Any mechitzah lower than that, however, is not
considered a mechitzah at all.
* A balcony does not need to be encircled with a partition or a curtain.
It is preferable and recommended, however, to do so if possible(14).
* Although, technically, the upper part of the mechitzah may be made out
of glass since it serves as a physical barrier between the sections, it is
self-defeating and inadequate to use glass, as many women, unfortunately,
come to shul improperly dressed and /or with their hair not covered
* A mechitzah which has sizable gaps towards the top is not acceptable
since it does not effectively guard against kalus rosh(16). A mechitzah
which has tiny openings in the lattice work is permitted(17).
* The mechitzah must reach the required height (60") in both the men's and
women's sections. Raising the floor of the women's section - which in
effect lowers the height of the mechitzah - defeats the purpose of the
1 Succah 51a.
2 Tzitz Eliezer 7:8.
3 Led by R' Shlomo Ganzfried, author of Kitzur Shulchan Aruch, and M'haram
Ash, disciple of Chasam Sofer, and countersigned by the Divrei Chayim. The
proclamation is published in Lev ha-Ivri. See also Chasam Sofer 5:190,
M'haram Shick 79 and Zichron Yehudah 1:62 who also voiced strong
objections to any tampering with the traditional mechitzah.
4 Rambam (commentary to the Mishnah Succah 5:2)
5 Tosfos Yom Tov (commentary to the Mishnah Succah 5:2).
6 Rambam Hilchos Lulav 8:14.
7 Piskei Rid Succah 51; Meiri Midos 2:5; Korban Eidah (Yerushalmi Succah
5:2) as explained in Divrei Yoel 1:10.