Kiddush in Shul: Proper Conduct
Kiddush is recited over a cup(1) of wine or grape juice which holds a
revi'is (3 fl. oz.). At least a cheekful (approximately 1.6 fl. oz.) must
There is no requirement for anybody but the person who makes Kiddush
to taste the wine. As long as the listener intended to fulfill the mitzvah
of Kiddush and heard every word of the blessing, he fulfills the mitzvah.
is, however, desirable (a mitzvah min ha-muvchar) to partake of the Kiddush
cup.(3) For this reason, many people make certain to drink some wine when
attending a kiddush in shul. Doing so, however, can lead to a problematic
situation regarding the correct blessing for any other beverage which will
be drunk at the kiddush. Let us explain:
The blessing of borei pri ha-gafen automatically includes any
which is on the table or which will be brought to the table during the
kiddush. No shehakol is recited on soda or juice, etc. that will be drunk
during the kiddush.(4)
Even those who did not actually recite borei pri ha-gafen but heard
Kiddush from another person do not recite a shehakol on other beverages.
This rule applies only if one drank a melo lugmav (a cheekful) of wine or
If one drank some wine or grape juice - but less than a melo lugmav -
and wishes to drink another beverage, it is questionable(5) if he needs to
recite a shehakol on the other beverages. It follows, therefore, that those
who listen to someone else's Kiddush and partake of the wine and then want
to drink another beverage, must do one of the following(6):
* Drink at least a cheekful;
* Recite a shehakol on a food item;
* Listen to a shehakol recited by another person.
Kiddush on Schnapps
It is a common practice to recite Kiddush Shabbos morning over a
one-ounce cup of schnapps [or liqueur.(7)] Although many poskim(8) object,
as Kiddush must be recited over a cup which holds at least a revi'is and at
least a cheekful must be drunk, still there are poskim(9) who defend this
minhag Yisrael.(10) They reason that schnapps is different from wine since
it is normally consumed in much smaller quantities and is therefore subject
to a different set of measurements.(11)
Those who rely on this leniency and recite Kiddush over schnapps,
also recite a borei nefashos over the schnapps, even though only a small
amount was drunk. Although one does not recite a borei nefashos unless he
drinks at least 3 fl. oz. of a beverage,(12) schnapps - according to this
view - is an exception and requires a borei nefashos even on a much smaller
When no wine or grape juice is available, there is a way of reciting
Kiddush over schnapps which will satisfy the opinions of most poskim:
Kiddush on a revi'is of schnapps and drink a cheekful or a revi'is, but
instead of swallowing it in one shot, sip it slowly, for a period of up to
three or four minutes.(14) When even this is not possible, the next best
option is to share the cheekful amount with others who are listening to the
Kiddush B'Makon Seudah
Kiddush must always be followed by a seudah (meal). Most poskim(16)
maintain that mezonos eaten at a kiddush is considered a "seudah" for this
purpose.(17) After making Kiddush, at least a k'zayis (approximately 1
ounce) of mezonos must be eaten within three to four minutes. One who
to do so must repeat Kiddush at home before his meal. A mezonos kugel is
considered full-fledged mezonos in regard to this halachah.(18)
On Pesach or other times when mezonos items are not available, the
preferred method is to eat the seudah immediately after reciting Kiddush.
that is difficult, one should drink an additional revi'is (3 fl. oz.) of
wine or grape juice. If one has no other wine or grape juice, he can rely
the revi'is of wine he consumed for Kiddush.(19)
There are poskim(20) who maintain that even l'chatchilah, one may eat
fruit or shehakol items after Kiddush is recited if there are no mezonos
items available. But then, Kiddush must be repeated at home before the
Other poskim(21) allow this practice only under special circumstances, such
as the case of a person who is weak and needs to eat and has no mezonos
While there is no obligation to repeat Kiddush at home if the
requirements for Kiddush were met earlier in shul or at the simchah hall
[unless there are other people at home who did not yet hear Kiddush], it is
praiseworthy to do so.(22) One who made Kiddush on schnapps should repeat
Kiddush at home over wine or grape juice.(23)
The proper blessing over cholent depends on the ingredients:
A cholent which contains beans, potatoes and small pieces of meat or
chicken requires only borei pri ha-adamah. It is considered a "single-
mixture" since the entire mixture is eaten together in one spoonful.
the ha-adamah ingredients constitute the majority of the cholent mixture,
they determine the blessing for the cholent.(24) Even if the cholent has a
soupy consistency, no shehakol blessing is required. The berachah acharonah
is borei nefashos.
When kishke is served along with the cholent, the kishke requires a
blessing of borei minei mezonos. Since the kishke is generally not eaten in
the same spoonful as the cholent, its blessing does not exempt the rest of
the cholent from the blessing of ha-adamah,(25) and therefore two blessings
The other type of cholent is the kind which contains barley in
addition to potatoes, beans and small pieces of meat or chicken. This kind
of cholent requires only a mezonos blessing. Since it is a "single-entity
mixture" which contains one of the five species of grain (barley), the
barley assumes the halachic status of ikar (a preeminent ingredient), even
if there is less barley than beans and potatoes.(26) The mezonos said over
the barley exempts all the other ingredients in the cholent. In order for
the barley to be considered the ikar, however, the following two conditions
must be met:
* The barley must be added to the cholent to enhance its taste. If it is
added to the cholent just as a binding or thickening agent,(27) or to give
it color or aroma,(28) a mezonos is not said over the barley [or the
* The taste of the barley must actually be noticeable in the mixture.(29)
In most cases when barley is added to the cholent, the above two
conditions are met. The proper blessing, then, is mezonos. No other
should be made over the other ingredients.(30) If, after reciting a mezonos
on the barley, one recites another blessing, such as ha-adamah on the
potatoes or shehakol on the meat, he may be reciting a blessing in vain.
If one recites ha-adamah or shehakol before the mezonos, he may be reciting
an unnecessary blessing.(32)
An exception to the above rules is when the cholent contains large
pieces of meat and chicken which are not eaten together with the rest of
cholent(.33) In that case, a shehakol is said over the meat or chicken
the mezonos has been recited over the cholent.
The berachah acharonah on barley cholent depends on the amount of
barley consumed. If one eats a k'zayis of barley in three to four minutes
less, al ha-michyah is said. No borei nefashos is required.(34) If less
that amount of barley is eaten, a borei nefashos is said over the rest of
The preferred method when eating a barley cholent at a kiddush is to
recite a mezonos over the cake at the beginning of the kiddush while having
in mind the cholent as well(35); this obviates the need for a blessing over
the cholent. The al ha-michyah recited over the cake will include the
cholent also, thus making it unnecessary to estimate the amount of barley
eaten and the time span within which it was consumed.
Note, however, that when barley cholent is served there is no need at
all to eat cake, as one may fulfill his obligation of Kiddush b'makom
by eating a k'zayis of barley from the cholent.(36)
1 Some poskim advise against using a disposable cup for Kiddush (Igros
Moshe O.C. 3:39; Minchas Yitzchak 10:23; Harav C. Kanievksy, Ohel Chanoch,
pg. 228), while others are not particular (Harav Y.S. Elyashiv, quoted in
Shevus Yitzchak, Muktzeh, pg. 48; Tzitz Eliezer 12:23). See Shemiras
K'hilchasah 47, note 51, quoting Harav S.Z. Auerbach.
2 Based on the measurements of Harav M. Feinstein. A cheekful is a little
more than half a revi'is.
3 O.C. 274:14. There is a minority view (Brisker Rav quoted in Moadim
u'Zemanim 3:243) that holds that on Shabbos morning one must partake of the
Kiddush cup in order to fulfill the mitzvah. The poskim, however do not
agree with this stringency; see Yechaveh Da'as 5:20.
4 O.C. 174:2. Note, however, that Harav Y.S. Elyashiv is quoted (Vezos
ha-Berachah, pg. 267) as ruling that only a borei pri ha-gafen over wine
exempts all other beverages; when it is recited over grape juice it does
exempt other beverages.
5 Derech ha-Chayim rules that it is sufficient, but Beiur Halachah 174:2
questions that. See Minchas Yitzchak 8:19 and Yechaveh Da'as 5:20.
6 Beiur Halachah 174:2. [It is not sufficient to have specific intention
that the blessing over the wine should only cover the wine itself and not
other beverages; Harav Y.S. Elyashiv, quoted in Vezos ha-Berachah, pg.
7 Minchas Yitzchak 10:22.
8 Mishnah Berurah 272:30; Aruch ha-Shulchan 272:13; Minchas Shabbos 79:29;
Ketzos ha-Shulchan 89:5.
9 Ketzei ha-Mateh (Mateh Efrayim 625:99); Eishel Avraham 272:6; Maharsham
1:175; Chelkas Yaakov 1:94.
10 Because the practice was defended (in part) due to the scarcity and
expense of wine, some poskim suggest that nowadays, Kiddush should be made
over wine or grape juice only, see Nimukei Orchos Chayim 273.
11 This is based on the view of the Taz O.C. 210:1, which is rejected by
the later poskim; see Mishnah Berurah 190:14.
12 O.C. 190:3.
13 Har Tzvi O.C. 159. It follows, therefore, that those who follow the
majority view and do not recite Kiddush on schnapps, do not recite a borei
nefashos when drinking an amount of schnapps less than a revi'is.
14 Mishnah Berurah 271:68. No talking should take place until the minimum
amount is drunk.
15 Mishnah Berurah 272:30.
16 Mishnah Berurah 273:25.
17 A notable exception is the view of the Vilna Gaon, who maintains that
Kiddush can be made only when a seudah of bread follows. His view is quoted
by the Beiur Halachah 273:5 without comment. Aruch ha-Shulchan 273:8
considers this to be the preferred method. The general custom, however,
follows the view of most poskim.
18 Shemiras Shabbos K'hilchasah 54:22; Az Nidberu 8:31; Harav C. Kanievksy
(Ohel Chanoch, pg. 229). See Meor ha-Shabbos, vol. 2, pgs. 576-577.
19 Mishnah Berurah 273:25, 27.
20 Igros Moshe O.C. 4:63. See also Ein Yitzchak O.C. 12 and B'tzeil
ha-Chochmah 4:2; 5:115.
21 Mishnah Berurah 273:26.
22 Shalmas Chayim 1:59. See also Igros Moshe O.C. 4:63 (anaf 8) who
that Kiddush should be repeated at home before the main meal.
23 To satisfy the view of the majority of the poskim.
24 O.C. 208:7. Mishnah Berurah 204:57; 207:7; 212:1.
25 Aruch ha-Shulchan 212:2.
26 Mishnah Berurah and Aruch ha-Shulchan 212:1. This is true even if the
taste of the barley is not the preferred one.
27 O.C. 208:2.
28 O.C. 204:12.
29 Mishnah Berurah 208:49; Beiur Halachah 208:9; Sha'ar ha-Tziyun 212:6;
oral ruling from Harav M. Feinstein (quoted in Guide to Practical Halachah,
vol. 2, pg. 204).
30 Note that a dissenting opinion (Chayei Adam 51:13; 54:9 and Kitzur
Shulchan Aruch 54:5) maintains that when each item is recognizable, a
separate berachah is made over each. Mishnah Berurah and Aruch ha-Shulchan,
however, do not agree, and Harav S.Z. Auerbach (Vezos ha-Berachah, pg. 94)
and Harav Y.S. Elyashiv (Vesein Berachah, pg. 63) rule that one need not
concern himself with the dissenting view.
31 Mishnah Berurah 168:43.
32 This is based on a disagreement among the poskim; see Sha'arei Teshuvah
212:1; Shulchan Aruch Harav 249:4; Sha'ar ha-Tziyun 212:15.
33 Aruch ha-Shulchan 212:2; Harav Y.S. Elyashiv (quoted in Vezos
ha-Berachah, pg. 109).
34 O.C. 212:1; Mishnah Berurah 208:48; Igros Moshe O.C. 1:68.
35 The blessing is valid even though the cholent has not yet been served.
36 See O.C. 639:2, Mishnah Berurah 15 and Sha'ar ha-Tziyun 35.
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