Question: What are the Yom Tov restrictions in regard to flowers?
Discussion: Flowers, while still connected to the ground, may be
smelled and touched, provided that their stems are soft and do not normally
Flowers in a vase may be moved on Shabbos and Yom Tov. They may not,
however, be moved from a shady area to a sunny area to promote blossoming.
If the buds have not fully bloomed, the vase may be moved but just slightly,
since the movement of the water hastens the opening of the buds.
One may remove flowers from a vase full of water, as long as they have not
sprouted roots in the water. Once removed, they may not be put back in
the water if that will cause further blossoming.
Water may not be added to a flower vase on Shabbos. On Yom Tov,
however, a small amount of water may be added but not changed .
Flowers should be placed in water before Yom Tov. In case they were not,
they may not be placed in water on Shabbos if the buds have not blossomed
fully. If the buds are completely opened, however, some poskim permit
placing them in water on Yom Tov while others do not.
One may not gather flowers or create an arrangement and place it in a vase
on Shabbos, even if the vase contains no water.
Question: Does one recite a blessing over the pleasant fragrance
exuded from flowers in a vase?
Discussion: Just as one may not derive pleasure from food or drink
before reciting a proper blessing, so too, one may not enjoy a pleasant
fragrance before reciting the appropriate blessing. There are two
different types of blessings that can be recited over pleasant
fragrances exuded from flowers:
1. Borei atzei vesamim: Recited over fragrant shrubs and trees or their
flowers (e.g., myrtle, roses ).
2. Borei isvei vesamim: Recited over fragrant herbs, grasses or flowers.
The blessing is recited immediately before one intends to smell the pleasant
fragrance. B’diavad, one may recite the blessing within a few seconds after
he smelled a pleasant fragrance .
But a blessing over a pleasant fragrance is recited only over an object
whose purpose is to exude a pleasant fragrance. If the object is primarily
for another purpose — even if the object is sweet-smelling — no blessing is
recited. Although flowers in a vase exude a pleasant fragrance, since
people usually buy flowers for their beauty, one who walks by and smells
them does not recite a blessing. If, however, the flowers are picked up and
smelled, a blessing must be recited.
Question: Within the same meal, may one eat cheese or other dairy
food and then eat meat immediately thereafter?
Discussion: According to the basic halachah it is permitted to eat
meat or chicken immediately after eating cheese or any other dairy food,
even during the same meal; there is no requirement to recite Birkas ha-mazon
or a berachah acharonah between the dairy and the meat. The only separation
required is to clean and rinse the mouth and teeth, wash the hands and clean
the table (or change the tablecloth) to make sure that no dairy residue or
crumbs remain. While there are scrupulous individuals who wait at least an
hour between eating dairy and meat in addition to reciting Birkas
ha-mazon or a berachah acharonah between them — and their custom is based on
the Zohar and quoted by several poskim — it is not required by the
Question: Does the same halachah apply to hard cheese as well?
Discussion: When “hard” cheese is eaten, the halachah is different.
Shulchan Aruch quotes an opinion that requires one to wait a full six hours
between eating hard cheese and meat. This view maintains that the taste and
oily residue of hard cheese lingers in the mouth long after the cheese has
been consumed, just as the taste and residue of meat lingers long after
consumption. In addition, other poskim hold that hard cheese can get
stuck between the teeth just as pieces of meat do. While other poskim
do not consider either of these issues to be a problem with hard cheese and
permit eating meat immediately after eating hard cheese, Rama and the later
poskim recommend that one be stringent and wait six hours between
consuming hard cheese, and meat or poultry. (See tomorrow’s Discussion
for a definition of “hard cheese.”)
Question: How do we define “hard” cheese concerning this halachah?
Discussion: Exactly how to define “hard” cheese is another
controversial subject. All poskim agree that cheese which has been cured for
at least six months before being packaged and refrigerated is considered
hard cheese. While many of the hard cheeses sold in the United States
are not aged for six months, there are several brands of cheese that
advertise that they have been cured for ten months or longer and those are
surely considered hard cheeses. Parmesan cheese, for instance, is aged for
at least a year, if not longer. The poskim are also in agreement that
cheeses that are not aged six months but are cured long enough to become
wormy are considered “hard” cheese.
There are, however, some poskim who maintain that all hard cheeses,
including all kinds of American (yellow) cheese, etc., are considered hard
cheese and one who eats them should wait six hours before eating meat.
While some individuals follow this opinion, the widespread custom follows
the more lenient view. It is appropriate, though, to wait at least one
hour between eating any hard cheese and meat.
Question: Why do some women omit the blessing of shehecheyanu when
they light Yom Tov candles?
Discussion: The validity of the custom to recite shehecheyanu at
candle-lighting time, a prevalent long-standing custom, has been
extensively debated by the poskim. The preferred time to recite
shehecheyanu is right after the recitation of Kiddush, while the cup of wine
is still being held aloft. Since ladies listen and answer amen to the
shehecheyanu which is recited after Kiddush, there is no halachic reason for
them to recite this very blessing when they light candles. There are other
halachic objections as well. Still, since many women are inspired by the
important mitzvah of candle-lighting and feel the need to express their joy
at that time, the custom evolved of reciting shehecheyanu at candle-lighting
time. Most poskim feel that while we do not encourage this practice, we need
not object to it and the ladies who recite their own shehecheyanu at
candle-lighting time may continue to do so.
1.Mishnah Berurah 336:48.
2. Rav M. Feinstein (quoted in Sefer Hilchos Shabbos, pg. 64).
19. Chochmas Adam 40:13; Aruch ha-Shulchan, Y.D. 89: and Mishnah Berurah
494:16 and Sha’ar ha-Tziyun 15. Sefaradim, however, do not follow this
stringency; see Yabia Omer, Y.D. 6:7.
20. If the hard cheese is softened through boiling or cooking, it is no
longer considered hard cheese; Darchei Teshuvah 89:43. But if it is merely
fried or baked (as in pizza), it is still considered hard cheese; Rav Y.S.
Elyashiv (Sefer ha-Kashrus, pg. 280; Me’or ha-Shabbos, vol. 3, pg. 426).
21. Shach, Y.D. 89:15.
22. These “worms” are kosher and are permitted to be eaten as long as they
remain within the cheese; see Rama, Y.D. 84:16.
23. Taz, Y.D. 89:4; Chochmas Adam 40:13.
24. Rav Y.Y. Weiss, quoted in Teshuvos v’Hanhagos, Y.D. 1:388; Rav S.Z.
Auerbach, quoted in Me’or ha-Shabbos, vol. 3, pg. 427; Rav Y.S. Elyashiv,
quoted in Sefer ha-Kashrus, pg. 280; Shevet ha-Levi 2:35.
25. Ma’asei Ish 5, pg. 22, quoting Chazon Ish; Kitzur Shulchan Aruch
(Feiffer), pg. 138, quoting Rav A. Kotler; Yagel Yaakov, pg. 148, quoting
Rav M. Feinstein; Debreciner Rav in Pischei Halachah, pg. 108; Mi-Beis Levi
6; Rav C. Kanievsky, quoted in Nezer ha-Chayim, pg. 213; Mesorah, vol. 20,
pg. 91, ruling by Rav Y. Belsky.
26. Rav Y.E. Henkin, written ruling published in Yagel Yaakov, pg. 148.
27. Mateh Efrayim 581:4; 619:4.
28. See Sh'eilas Ya'avetz 107, Kaf ha-Chayim 263:40 and Moadim u'Zemanim
7:117 quoting the Brisker Rav.