The obligation to light Shabbos candles rests equally on all members of a
household. Nevertheless, our Sages placed the responsibility for the actual
lighting upon the wife. One of the reasons given is that candle-lighting
atones for Chavah’s part in the sin of the eitz ha-da'as (Tree of
Knowledge): Chavah caused Adam to eat of the forbidden fruit for which Man
was punished by losing his immortality. Since Chavah extinguished “the
candle of the world, ” it is the woman who sets aright Chavah's misdeed
by assuming the obligation of lighting candles for her household.
Even if a husband demands that he light the candles, the wife has the right
to protest and prevent him from doing so. It is recommended, though,
that the husband take part in the mitzvah by lighting and quickly
extinguishing the candle wicks, thereby making them easier to light. If
candles are lit in other rooms in addition to the eating area, it is the
husband who lights them.
If one has no wife, or if he sees that his wife is running late and will be
unable to light on time, then he should light the candles with the
If one’s wife is not home for Shabbos, it is preferable that the husband
himself light candles and not one of the daughters. If, however, a
daughter who is over twelve years old lights for him, he fulfills the
mitzvah through her lighting. One cannot, however, fulfill his obligation by
having a daughter under twelve light candles for him.
In the event that a brother and sister are at home without their parents,
it is preferable that the sister light the candles.
Years ago, it was customary for a woman who gave birth not to light candles
on the first Friday night after giving birth. For that one Shabbos, candles
were lit by the husband. Several reasons are offered in explanation of
this custom, but apparently the main concern was that women were too weak
after childbirth to get out of bed and light candles. In view of the
improved health conditions prevalent nowadays, many poskim agree that the
custom is no longer valid and the wife should light candles as she does
every Friday night.
Question: How has electrical lighting affected the traditional way of
lighting Shabbos candles?
Discussion: When electricity became commonplace, the poskim debated whether
the mitzvah of lighting Shabbos candles could be fulfilled by turning on
electric lights. While the vast majority of poskim were of the opinion that
one could indeed fulfill this obligation with electrical lighting, and some
even held that it was preferable to use electricity, most women opted to
continue lighting the traditional candle or oil-based lights. This remains
the prevalent custom today. Still, there is a prominent role for electric
lights to play in the performance of this mitzvah and indeed, almost every
Jewish household relies on electricity in order to properly and completely
fulfill the mitzvah of hadlaks neiros Shabbos. Let us explain:
The halachah states that one is obligated to have light in any room that
will be used on Friday night. Our Sages instituted this ordinance so
that household members would be able to safely move about the house without
fear of injury that would disrupt the harmony of Shabbos. Today, most homes
rely on some electrical source (night-light, bathroom-light, etc.) to
illuminate the areas in which they will find themselves on Friday night.
Thus, they fulfill this part of the mitzvah with electric lights.
The appropriate procedure, then, is as follows. When the wife is ready to
light candles in the dining room, all the electrical lights in the rooms
which will be used on Friday night should be shut off. Those lights should
then be turned on by the husband (or wife or another family member), with
the intention that they are being turned on for the sake of the mitzvah of
Shabbos candles. The wife then lights the candles, and the blessing she
recites covers all of the lights in the house, both electrical and otherwise.
There are a number of other scenarios in which electric lights may be used
in conjunction with candles in order to properly fulfill the mitzvah:
Students residing in a dormitory or guests staying at a hotel are
obligated to light Shabbos candles. Even if they light candles in the dining
hall, they are still required to light in the area where they sleep. Since
it is usually unsafe to leave candles burning in a dormitory or in a hotel
room, we must rely on electric lights to fulfill that part of the mitzvah. A
small light should, therefore, be turned off and on in honor of Shabbos
before Shabbos starts. A blessing, however, should not be made, since the
blessing is recited over the candles which are lit in the main dining room.
Shabbos guests can technically fulfill the mitzvah of lighting Shabbos
candles through the lighting of their hosts. Even though they are not
required to light a special candle of their own, it has nevertheless become
customary that all married women light their own candles. But since the
guests are required to have some light in their sleeping area (to fulfill
the halachic obligation mentioned above), the proper procedure for them is
as follows: Turn on an electric light in or near one’s sleeping quarters,
proceed quickly to the dining room and light candles, and have the blessing
apply to both acts of lighting.
Sometimes a situation arises where the mitzvah of hadlakas neiros can be
performed by using electric lights only. For instance:
Moments before Shabbos is about to begin, one realizes that there
are no candles in the house and none can be gotten on such short notice.
Instead of panicking, the dining room lights should be turned off and then
turned on again lichvod Shabbos.
In a situation where using candles would be difficult or dangerous, such
as in a hospital, the poskim agree that one should rely on the electric
lights for Shabbos candles. They should be turned off and then turned on
again for the sake of the mitzvah.
Many poskim hold that the blessing of lehadlik ner shel Shabbos is recited
even when the mitzvah is performed by lighting electric lights only.
Others hold that in such a case the blessing should be omitted. No
clear-cut custom exists and one should follow his or her rav's directives.
Question; Does it matter whether or not the electric lights in the dining
room are off or on at the time the Shabbos candles are lit?
Discussion: Contemporary poskim debate this issue. Some question the
custom of lighting candles when the electric lights are on, since the
candles are not adding any more light to the room. In their opinion,
reciting the blessing over candles which are lit in a brightly illuminated
room may be a berachah l’vatalah. Other poskim dismiss that argument and
maintain that since the candles are lit lichvod Shabbos and add a measure of
festivity and ambiance to the Shabbos table, the candle-lighting is
significant enough to warrant the recitation of a berachah.
In order to avoid a possible berachah l’vatalah, it is recommended that
either the husband or the wife turn off the lights in the dining room before
the candles are lit, and then turn them on again lichvod Shabbos right
before (or immediately after the lighting, but before the recital of the
blessing) the candles are lit. This way, the blessing which the wife recites
over the candles will cover the electric lights as well.
1. Tur, O.C. 263.
2. This is how the Midrash (Tanchumah, Metzora 9) refers to Adam.
3. Contemporary poskim debate whether or not the custom that all of the
girls in a household over the age of chinuch light candles with a blessing —
is valid; see Aruch ha-Shulchan 263:7; Az Nidberu 6:67-68 and Yechaveh Da’as
4. Mishnah Berurah 263:11.
5. Mishnah Berurah 263:12; 264:28. See Tosfos Rav Akiva Eiger, Shabbos
2:6. [The Chazon Ish, however, is quoted as ruling that nowadays, when the
candles are of superior quality, there is no reason to light and extinguish
them first; see Dinim v’Hanhagos 9:6 and Eheleh be-Tamar, pg. 17.]
6. See follow-up discussion for explanation of why candles [or electric
lights] need to be lit in other rooms.
7. Shulchan Aruch ha-Rav 263:5; Ketzos ha-Shulchan 74 (Badei ha-Shulchan
11). See also Beiur Halachah 263:6 s.v. bachurim.
8. Mishnah Berurah 262:11.
9. Rav M. Feinstein (oral ruling quoted in The Radiance of Shabbos, pg.
7); Shemiras Shabbos K'hilchasah 43, note 46.
20. Har Tzvi 2:114, quoting the Gaon of Rogatchov; Mishpatei Uziel, O.C.
1:7; Tchebiner Rav (quoted in Shraga ha-Meir 5:11); Rav M. Feinstein (oral
ruling quoted in The Radiance of Shabbos, 2, note 26). Rav S.Z. Auerbach
(quoted in Shemiras Shabbos K'hilchasah, 43, note 22) maintains that a
blessing could be made over a flashlight but not over other lights.
21. See the various views in Igros Moshe, O.C. 5:20-30; Shemiras Shabbos
K'hilchasah 43, note 166 and 171, quoting Rav S.Z. Auerbach; Shulchan
Shelomo, addendum to vol. 1, pg. 20; Divrei Yatziv, O.C. 120; Az Nidberu
3:2; Chut Shani, Shabbos, vol. 4, pg. 65-66, quoting Rav N. Karelitz.
22. This was the custom in the homes of a number of prominent poskim: Rav
M. Feinstein (The Radiance of Shabbos, pg. 20); Rav Y. Kamenetsky (Ko Somar
l'Beis Yaakov, pg. 50), who turned on the electricity after his wife lit the
candles but before she recited the blessing; Rav S.Z. Auerbach (after his
wife's passing) turned off the lights, lit the candles and then turned on
the lights (reported by his grandson in Kol ha-Torah, vol. 40, pg. 16). See
also Be’er Moshe 5:32 and Az Nidberu 1:79-9, 3:2, for a concurring opinion.