In order not to disturb the concentration of a person davening Shemoneh
Esrei, Shulchan Aruch forbids anyone from passing by (walking) in
front—within four amos [approx. 7 feet]—of a person who is davening.
Even if there is a table, shtender, another person or any other partition in
front of the person who is davening it is still forbidden to pass in front
of him, unless the partition is tall and wide enough to block the vision of
the person who is davening.
Consequently, a person davening Shemoneh Esrei should be careful to daven in
areas designated for davening, preferably in his proper seat and near a
table or a shtender. One must not daven near the doorway or in middle of an
aisle where people are always coming and going, since that will not permit
people to walk in front of him as long as he is davening Shemoneh Esrei. If
one disregarded this advisory and has now created a bottleneck or a
disturbance in the Shul as people cannot pass in front of him, he should be
told to move to another place, even though he has not yet finished davening
Shemoneh Esrei. If he refuses to move, it is permitted to walk in front of
him, when it is necessary to do so.
Question: Is it ever permitted to pass directly in front of a person
davening Shemoneh Esrei in his designated place?
Discussion: Under certain extenuating circumstances, such as for the sake of
a “passing mitzvah,” which is a mitzvah that cannot be fulfilled at a later
time, or to avoid an embarrassing situation, it is permitted to pass in
front of a person davening Shemoneh Esrei if no other option or alternative
is available. Some examples:
A child or baby who is disturbing the davening needs to be removed
An acute need to use the bathroom.
To deliver a public Torah lecture.
To daven Shemoneh Esrei with a minyan, to answer Kaddish, Barechu or
Kedushah, to listen to birkas kohanim or Kerias ha-Torah, but only when
these mitzvos will not be able to be fulfilled later.
To complete or join a minyan.
To receive an aliyah (after being called up).
To serve as a sheliach tzibbur or baal koreh when no else is available
to do so.
To avoid a substantial monetary loss or a long delay that may lead to
an argument. This leniency should only be relied upon if the person davening
Shemoneh Esrei either covers his face with a tallis or davens with his eyes
shut, and would therefore not be disturbed.
In all of the cases listed above one should make every effort to find a way
to get to his destination without passing directly in front of the person
davening Shemoneh Esrei. It is only when no other alternative exists that he
may disregard the prohibition to pass in front of a person davening Shemoneh
Question: Are there any restriction concerning passing by on the sides or
behind a person davening Shemoneh Esrei?
Discussion: Some poskim forbid that as well. Their ruling is based on the
Kabbalistic concept, quoted by the Zohar, that the Divine Presence
(Shechinah) surrounds a person who is davening Shemoneh Esrei; one who
enters that holy area is “interfering” (creating a hefsek) between the
person davening and the Divine Presence, which is forbidden.
L’chatchilah we follow the opinion of these poskim and refrain from entering
the four amos of one who is davening, even behind him, and certainly not on
either side of him. Still, in case of any pressing need or for the
performance of any mitzvah, such as collecting charity, we are lenient and
permit passing on the sides or behind a person who is davening Shemoneh
Question: Is it permitted to take three steps back if the person directly
behind is still in midst of davening Shemoneh Esrei?
Discussion: Based on the above, it follows that it is forbidden for one who
finished davening Shemoneh Esrei to step back three steps if the person
directly behind is still in midst of davening and he will enter his four
amos when stepping back. Even if the person still davening is taking an
extra long time to finish, and even if he began his Shemoneh Esrei after the
congregation began davening, it is still forbidden to step into his four
If one finished his Shemoneh Esrei but must leave and cannot wait for the
person directly behind him to finish his Shemoneh Esrei so that he could
step back a full three steps, or if he needs to fulfill a mitzvah and cannot
wait, he should step back diagonally or sideways or take three small steps,
thus avoiding entering the four amos of he person behind them. If those
options are not available, he should recite Oseh Shalom without stepping
back three steps and then walk away.
Preferably, one should not step back three steps until the person behind
him has concluded the entire Shemoneh Esrei and stepped back three steps.
But if for some reason he cannot wait, or if he needs to perform a mitzvah,
then he may take three steps back as long as person behind him finished his
Shemoneh Esrei, including Elokai Netzor, even though he has not yet taken
three steps back [either because he is waiting for the person behind him to
finish or for any reason]. Some poskim go further and permit taking
three steps back if the person behind finished Shemoneh Esrei but is still
in midst of reciting Elokai Netzor.
Sitting Near a Person Davening Shemoneh Esrei
It is forbidden to sit idly within four amos of a person davening
Shemoneh Esrei, including on either side of him or behind him. Sitting
around doing nothing in such close proximity to a person davening Shemoneh
Esrei, appears disrespectful – it is as if he is declaring that he is not
joining his fellow in his Service of Hashem.
A minority opinion maintains that sitting directly in front of a person
davening Shemoneh Esrei is forbidden even outside of his four amos “as far
as the eye could see” (approximately 465 feet). This is because it appears
as if the person davening is bowing down to the one sitting directly in
front of him. Although the basic Halachah does not follow this opinion,
many poskim suggest that it is appropriate to be stringent whenever
As mentioned, the prohibition is to sit idly by while one is davening. Thus
a person who is davening any part of the daily tefillah, including “extras”
such as korbanos or Pirkei Avos on Shabbos Minchah, may sit down to the side
or rear of one who is davening Shemoneh Esrei. Sitting directly in
front, however, should be avoided, in deference to the minority opinion
Some poskim go even further and permit a person who is studying Torah, or
who is writing Torah thoughts, to sit behind a person who is davening
Shemoneh Esrei. Under extenuating circumstances they permit him to sit at
his side as well.
If it is clearly evident that the person sitting down is doing so because he
is ill or elderly, or even if he is otherwise healthy but is presently weak
and needs to sit down, e.g., on a public fast day, it is permitted to sit to
the rear and sides of one who is davening Shemoneh Esrei. Under
extenuating circumstances it is permitted to sit in front of him as well.
It is permitted to sit within four amos of one davening Shemoneh Esrei, even
directly in front of him, if there is a partition which is attached to the
ground and is at least 35 inches high and 14 inches wide between them.
1. Man or woman, adult or child, including a minor who is mature enough
to daven with concentration.
2. O.C. 102:4. Similar rules apply also to a person reciting the first
verse of Shema Yisrael (Beiur Halachah, s.v. assur) and one who is reciting
Kaddish (Sha’arei Teshuvah 56:1).
3. Mishnah Berurah 102:2. Some poskim are more lenient and permit passing
in front as long as the partition is attached to the ground, at least 35
inches high and 14 inches wide; Chayei Adam 26:4; Eishel Avraham, O.C. 102;
Aruch ha-Shulchan 102:13.
4. See Eishel Avraham and Da’as Torah, O.C. 102:4; Halichos Shelomo
1:8-36; Btzeil ha-Chachmah 6:30-31.
5. See Mishnah Berurah 102:15, 17. In addition, some poskim are concerned
that walking on the side or behind a person who is davening will disturb his
concentration as well; see Meiri, Berachos 31b.
6. Kaf ha-Chayim 102:27; Minchas Yitzchak 8:10. Aruch ha-Shulchan 102:13
is even more lenient and permits passing behind or to the sides at all times.
7. O.C. 102:5. Similarly, it is forbidden to take three steps before one
begins Shemoneh Esrei if the person behind him has already begun to daven
his Shemoneh Esrei; Halichos Shelomo 1:8-33.
8. Mishnah Berurah 102:21.
9. Based on Mishnah Berurah 123:13, Aruch ha-Shulchan 123:5, and Kaf
10. Halichos Shelomo 1:9-1. See Mishnah Berurah 104:9.
11. Halichos Shelomo 1:8-34, based on Mishnah Berurah 97:3, 102:3 and
122:5. See also Ketzos ha-Shulchan 20:12 (Badei ha-Shulchan 26.)
13. Leaning heavily, i.e., the person leaning will fall if the item he is
leaning on were to be taken away, is considered like sitting; Mishnah
14. O.C. 102:1 and Mishnah Berurah 5, based on the Tur. The aforementioned
Kabbalistic concept that the four amos surrounding a person who is davening
is “holy” and may not be breached applies here as well; see Mishanh Berurah
15. Peri Chadash, Shulchan Aruch ha-Rav, Tehilah l’Dovid 102:1; Ben Ish
Chai, Yisro 6; Aruch ha-Shulchan 102