The ninth day of Av, the day on which both Batei Mikdash were destroyed, not
only commemorates the destruction of both Temples, but is also a national
day of mourning for all of the tragedies and calamities that have befallen
the Jewish people. This sorrowful fast day, which culminates the Three Weeks
period of mourning, is replete with special halachos. In this Discussion, we
will review some of the special restrictions that apply to Tishah b’Av as
well as the circumstances under which these restrictions do not apply:
Eating and drinking is forbidden. Eating and drinking is permitted for...
• A person who is ill, or an old or weak person who may become ill if he
does not eat or drink, even if his illness will not endanger his life.
1 He may eat as much food as he usually does, 2 but
he should not indulge himself.
• A woman up to thirty days after giving birth, 3 even if the
baby was stillborn. 4
• A woman who is expecting a child should consult a rav about fasting.
• Boys under the age of 13 and girls under the age of 12. 6 They
should not, however, indulge themselves with unnecessary food.
• Medication prescribed by a doctor. 7 It is permitted to
swallow a bit of water along with a prescribed medication if the medicine
cannot be swallowed otherwise. 8 Note: One who must eat on Tishah b'Av in the morning should daven
first, without tefillin, and then eat. If he needs to break his fast after
chatzos, he should daven Minchah with tefillin and then eat. If he cannot
daven Minchah until later in the day, he should still put on tefillin before
he eats. 9
Washing any part of the body is forbidden, even with cold water. Washing
is permitted for...
• Dirty or soiled hands or any other part of the body. Any substance or
discharge (e.g., a glutinous gel in the eye) may be rinsed off.
10 [If soap is needed to remove the dirt, it may be used.]
• Awakening in the morning. One may wash netilas yadayim three times on each
hand, 11 but the water should reach only until the knuckles.
12 After the hands are wiped but remain slightly damp, they may
be passed over the face or the eyes. 13
• After using the bathroom and/or after touching a part of the body that is
normally covered, but the water should reach only until the knuckles.
• Rinsing the mouth, but only in case of great discomfort. 15
Care must be taken not to swallow the water. Mouthwash should not be used.
• Preparing food. 17 If warm water is necessary, it may be used
as well. 18
• Medical needs. 19 Hot water may be used when needed.
• Preparation for davening. 21 Some say that only the tips of
the fingers (until the first joint22 ) should be washed.
• Washing dishes [after midday], if leaving them unwashed will attract
insects, 24 etc. It is proper not to use warm water.
• Eating bread, for those who are allowed to eat. The hands should be washed
to the wrists in the usual manner. 26 Some poskim hold that one
may also wash mayim acharonim if he is always particular to do so.
• A baby who is bathed daily. 28
• A bride, who is allowed to wash her face up to 30 days after her wedding.
Anointing (i.e., applying oils, creams, makeup, perfumes, etc.) is
forbidden. Anointing is permitted for...
• Medical needs. It is permitted, therefore, to apply ointment to a skin
rash30 or to apply a mosquito repellent. 31
• Preventing a bad odor. 32 Antiperspirant may be applied.
• A bride up to 30 days after her wedding. 34
Wearing leather shoes is forbidden, even if only part of the shoe is
coated with leather. 35 Leather shoes are permitted for...
• A person who has to walk a long distance over stones or mud, and no other
suitable footwear is available36.
• Medical needs. 37
• Children who are too young to understand about the destruction of the
Batei Mikdash. 38
Torah study is forbidden. Torah may be studied only...
• If the learning pertains to the story of the destruction of Jerusalem
and/or the Batei Mikdash, e.g., Eichah, its midrashim and commentaries;
parts of Yirmeyahu; Gittin 56-58; Sanhedrin 104; Yerushalmi, end of Ta'anis;
• Sefer Iyov with commentaries.
• The relevant halachos of Tishah b'Av and mourning. In-depth study should
be avoided. 39
• Sifrei Mussar40 (moralistic instruction and ethics).
• To prepare the Torah reading for either Shacharis or Minchah of Tishah
• Several poskim permit reciting Tehilim for a sick person. 42
• It is prohibited to greet people on Tishah b'Av. Greeting another person,
which includes saying “hello,” “good night,” “good morning,” etc.,
43 is permitted only if one must respond to a greeting. The
response should be uttered in a serious tone. 44
• Sending a gift is permitted only if the recipient is a needy person.
45 It is also prohibited to promise another person to give him a
• Sitting on chair or bench is permitted only after midday; before that one
should sit on the floor or on a low stool. 47 An elderly, ill or
weak person, or an expecting woman, may sit on a regular chair or bench.
• Unless it will result in a major and irretrievable loss, business should
not be conducted until midday. 49 Many G-d-fearing people do not
conduct business on Tishah b'Av even after midday.50
• Mourners should be consoled after midday only. Under extenuating
circumstances, it is permitted to visit a mourner and recite ha-Makom even
before midday. Other words of comfort should not be said at that time.
1. Mishnah Berurah 554:11. See also Chayei Adam 135:2. A mere headache or
minor discomfort, however, does not allow one to break his fast.
2. Although some poskim (Maharam Shick, O.C. 289 (see, however, 290);
Sedei Chemed, Bein ha-Metzarim 2:3; Beiur Halachah 554:6, s.v., d’bmakom,
quoting Pischei Olam; Marcheshes 1:14) maintain that one should try to eat
less than a shiur (like on Yom Kippur), the majority of the poskim disagree;
see Avnei Nezer 540; Aruch ha-Shulchan 554:7; Kaf ha-Chayim 554:31 (see,
however, 35); Chazon Ish (quoted in Toras ha-Yoledes 48, note 9); Rav Y.Z.
Soloveitchik (quoted in Teshuvos v'Hanhagos 2:261); Halichos Shelomo 3:13-5;
16-1; Shevet ha-Levi 4:56; Tzitz Eliezer 10:25-16. This is also the custom;
Nitei Gavriel, pg. 80, quoting Puppa Rav.
3. Aruch ha-Shulchan 554:8. Although Mishnah Berurah seems to rule
that that from seven days after the birth it is proper to fast, contemporary
poskim tend to be lenient in their ruling since nowadays women are weak.
When in doubt, consult a rav.
4. Beiur Halachah 617:4, s.v., yoledes, quoting Sedei Chemed.
5. See Halichos Shelomo 3:16-1 and Divrei Yatziv, O.C. 231, 232.
6. Some have the custom that children over the age of nine fast on
the night of Tishah b’Av and for a few hours during the day to accustom
themselves to fasting.
7. Kaf ha-Chayim 554:34.
8. Halichos Shelomo 3:16-3.
9. Entire paragraph based on ruling of Rav S.Z. Auerbach (Shemiras
Shabbos K'hilchasah 62, note 108 and 115).
10. O.C. 554:9, 11. See Rama, O.C. 613:1.
11. Those who usually wash four times (see Mishnah Berurah 4:10) may
do so on Tishah b'Av also; Kitzur Hilchos Moadim, pg. 109.
12. O.C. 554:10. One need not be exact (Orchos Rabbeinu, vol. 2, pg.
139, quoting Chazon Ish).
13. Mishnah Berurah 554:22.
14. O.C. 613:3, Mishnah Berurah 4-6 and Aruch ha-Shulchan 6.
15. Mishnah Berurah 567:11; Minchas Yitzchak 4:109. Aruch ha-Shulchan
567:3 is more stringent.
16. Rav M. Feinstein, oral ruling quoted in Halachos of the Three
Weeks, pg. 19.
17. Mishnah Berurah 554:19.
18. Kaf ha-Chayim 554:46.
19. Mishnah Berurah 554:26. A woman who has given birth may wash
herself as much as needed (Aruch ha-Shulchan 613:9).
20. Kaf ha-Chayim 554:63.
21. Mishnah Berurah 554:21.
22. Rav M. Feinstein (oral ruling quoted in Moadei Yeshurun, pg. 140).
23. Sha’arei Teshuvah 554:9. See also Aruch ha-Shulchan 554:10.
24. The poskim debate whether it is permissible to wash dishes on
Tishah b'Av. Clearly, though, if the dirty dishes will attract insects, one
may be lenient; see Pischei Teshuvah 554:22; Machazeh Eliyahu 87; Moadei
Yeshurun, pg. 140.
25. Kaf ha-Chayim 554:46.
26. She'arim Metzuyanim b'Halachah 133:16 quoting Levushei Mordechai,
Y.D. 2:11; Kaf ha-Chayim 554:53 quoting Tosfos Chayim 155:10; Rav S.Z.
Auerbach (Shemiras Shabbos K'hilchasah 39, note 106); Shevet ha-Levi 8:139.
27. Taharas ha-Shulchan 557. See, however, Moadei Yeshurun, pg. 141.
28. Chanoch l'Na'ar, pg. 57.
29. Mishnah Berurah 554:29.
30. O.C. 554:15.
31. Shevet ha-Kehasi 2:191.
32. Beiur Halachah 554:15, s.v. sichah.
33. Rav M. Feinstein (oral ruling, quoted in Moadei Yeshurun, pg.
141); Halachos of The Three Weeks, pg. 22; Halichos Shelomo 3:14, Orchos
Halachah, note 56. See Shalmei Moed, pg. 495.
34. Mishnah Berurah 554:29.
35. But if the leather part is merely decorative and is not an
integral part of the shoe, it is permitted; see Kaf ha-Chayim 554:75.
36. Mishnah Berurah 554:32.
37. O.C. 614:3.
38. See Chochmas Adam 152:17, who holds that even children above this
age may wear leather shoes. See, however, Igros Moshe, Y.D. 1:224 who rules
that once a child reaches the age of chinuch, he is forbidden to wear
leather shoes. Some parents train their children not to wear leather shoes
even before the age of chinuch; see Sha'ar ha-Tziyun 551:91 for a possible
39. Mishnah Berurah 554:4.
40. Tosfos Chayim on Chayei Adam 135:2; Yabia Omer 2:26, who quotes
the Meiri, Moed Katan 21a, who allows a mourner to study sefarim that bring
a person to repentance. (Rav C. Kanievsky is quoted (Rivevos Efrayim 1:386)
as prohibiting studying sefarim which are based on pesukim and sayings of
41. Mishnah Berurah 554:8.
42. Divrei Malkiel 6:9; Chazon Ish (quoted in Orchos Rabbeinu, vol.
2, pg. 142); Halichos Shelomo 3:15, Orchos Halachah, note 28. Moadei
Yeshurun, pg. 145 and Rivevos Efrayim, vol. 3, pg. 433, quote an oral ruling
from Rav M. Feinstein as prohibiting it.
43. To bless another person, such as to wish him mazal tov or refuah
shleimah, is permitted.
44. O.C. 554:20.
45. Kaf ha-Chayim 554:91.
46. Hisorerus Teshuvah 3:331.
47. O.C. 559:3. Some poskim hold that the stool should be lower than
12 inches, while others hold it is permitted to sit on any chair which is
lower than a standard chair or bench; see Nechamas Yisrael, pg. 170, and
Halichos Shelomo 3:15, Orchos Halachah 25, for the various views.
48. See Aruch ha-Shulchan, Y.D. 387:3.
49. O.C. 554:24.
50. Chayei Adam 135:19; Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 124:15.
51. Igros Moshe, O.C. 5:20-22.