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These are the individual tractates of Nezikin, the forth order of the Mishna. These descriptions are not meant as Halachic decisions. Please consult an Orthodox Rabbi for specific information.

  • Bava Kama - Civil law (damages) and (non-capital) criminal law (i.e. theft).
  • Bava Metziah - Business law.
  • Bava Basra - Property law.
  • Sanhedrin - The set up of the Jewish court system and criminal (capital) law.
  • Makos - Non capital punishments (i.e. whippings).
  • Shevuous - The laws of oaths.
  • Edios - Various laws from across the board... connected by their having been brought as "testimony" in various Yeshivas (Talmudic academies).
  • Avoda Zara - Laws of idol worship (a big no-no).
  • Horiyos (Horiyot) - the laws governing Judaism's "ruling class." - what happens to a high court, high priest or king who issues a legal ruling in error or who sins. It's interesting that the Torah seems to focus primarily on creating and maintaining perfect and moral government, rather than perpetuating its power
  • Avos - The famous "Ethics of the Fathers" - religious advice.

Rabbi Boruch Clinton teaches at the Ottawa Torah Institute yeshiva high school and Machon Sarah high school for girls (both in Ottawa, Canada). You may reach him with comments and questions at

You can now read some of Rabbi Clinton's essays on Torah life at

You can also buy his collection of essays on the Book of Shmuel (Samuel) in printed form at

Copyright 2000 by Rabbi Boruch Clinton and Project Genesis, Inc.



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