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46. Daily and Additional Sacrifices - Temidin u-Musafin

We are commanded to offer two lambs daily as burnt-offerings, one in the morning and one in the afternoon, as it says "Two each day, a regular burnt-offering...".1 The priests are commanded to keep a fire always burning on the altar, as it says "A perpetual fire shall burn on the altar"2; it is forbidden to extinguish it, as it says "It shall not be extinguished".2 They are also commanded to remove the ashes from the altar daily, as it says "And he shall lift up the ash [...on the altar]".3,a

The priests are commanded to burn incense on the golden altar every morning and afternoon, as it says "And Aaron shall burn compounded incense on it...".4 They are also commanded to light the candelabrum daily, as it says "[To raise a perpetual candle...] Aaron and his sons shall arrange it".5 The high priest is commanded to offer a cake-offering every morning and afternoon [as it says "This is the sacrifice of Aaron and his sons... and the priest of his sons who is anointed in his place shall make it".]6,b

On the sabbath there are two additional lamb burnt-offerings [as it says "And on the sabbath day..."7]. The showbread is also placed on the table every sabbath with frankincense, as it says "[You shall take flour and bake it into twelve loaves...] on the sabbath he shall arrange it...".8 The previous sabbath's showbread is divided between the watch of priests going off duty and that coming on duty and its frankincense is burned on the altar; it must be eaten in the Temple. On the new moon the additional burnt-offerings consist of two bulls, a ram and seven lambs, and there is also a he-goat sin-offering.9,c

On each of the seven days of Pesach there are additional offerings like those on the new moon.10 On the second day, besides these there is a lamb burnt-offering in conjunction with the omer, an offering of flour made from parched barley.11 We are commanded to count seven weeks from the day that the omer is brought, as it says "And you shall count... [from the day you bring the omer...] seven sabbaths... you shall count 50 days"12; this commandment applies even when the Temple does not exist. The fiftieth day is Shavuos; on it there are additional offerings like those on the new moon.13 Besides these there are a bull, two rams, and seven lambs as burnt-offerings, a he-goat sin-offering, and two lamb peace-offerings14; these are brought in conjunction with a bread-offering of two leavened loaves.d

On Rosh ha-Shanah, besides the additional offering for the new moon, there are a bull, ram, and seven lambs as burnt-offerings and a he-goat sin-offering.15 On Yom Kippur there are the same offerings, together with another he-goat sin-offering (brought in conjunction with the scapegoat) that is not eaten.16 On the first day of Sukkos there are thirteen bulls, two rams and fourteen lambs as burnt- offerings and a he-goat sin-offering; and the same on the succeeding six days except that the number of bulls is reduced by one each day.17 It is also traditional to pour a water libation on the altar on these seven days. On the eighth day the offerings are like those on Rosh ha-Shanah.18,e

Sources:

1. Num. 28:3ff a. 1:1; 2:1,3,10
2. Lev. 6:6 b. 3:1,10,18
3. Lev. 6:3 c. 4:9-12; 5:1-2; 7:1
4. Ex. 30:7-8 d. 7:3,12,22,24; 8:1
5. Ex. 27:20-21; compare Lev. 24:2-3 e. 9:1; 10:1-6
6. Lev. 6:13-15
7. Num. 28:9-10
8. Lev. 24:5-9
9. Num. 28:11ff
10. Num. 28:16ff
11. Lev. 23:9ff; see 2:14-16
12. Lev. 23:15-16
13. Num. 28:26ff
14. Lev. 23:l6ff
15. Num. 29:lff
16. Num. 29:7ff
17. Num. 29:l2ff
18. Num. 29:35ff



 






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