Torah.org Home Subscribe Services Support Us
 
Print Version

Email this article to a friend


68. Murderer and Protection of Life - Rotze'ach u-Shemiras Nefesh

It is forbidden to murder, as it says "You shall not murder".1 A murderer must be put to death, as it says "He shall be avenged"2; it is forbidden to accept compensation from him instead, as it says "You shall not take redemption for the life of a murderer...; and there shall be no atonement for the blood that was spilled... except the blood of him that spilled it".3 It is forbidden to execute a murderer before he has stood trial, as it says "And the murderer shall not die until he stands before the congregation for judgment".4 However, we are commanded to prevent an attempted murder by killing the would-be murderer if necessary, and it is forbidden to refrain from doing so, as it says "And you shall cut off her hand; you shall not be merciful"5; and similarly for attempted fornication, as it says "[If the man seizes her and lies with her...] just as a man rises up against his friend and murders him, so is this thing."6 It is forbidden to refrain from saving life when it is in one's power to do so, as it says "You shall not stand on your friend's blood."7,a

One who kills a man by accident must be exiled to a city of refuge and it is forbidden to accept compensation from him instead, as it says "He shall dwell there until the death of the high priest... and you shall not take redemption from [one] who flees to his city of refuge [to return and dwell in the land before the priest dies]."8 We are commanded to set aside such cities in the land of Israel, as it says "You shall set aside three cities... [to which a murderer can flee]"9; all the cities given to the Levites are cities of refuge, as it says "The cities that you shall give to the Levites: the six cities of refuge that you shall give for a murderer to flee there, and besides them you shall give 42 cities".10,b

If a murdered body is found in the land of Israel the court of the nearest city kills a calf near a stream on untilled soil as an atonement [as it says "If a corpse is found in the land... and it is not known who struck him... the elders of the city nearest to the corpse shall take a calf with which no work has been done... and take the calf down to a mighty stream that must not be worked and not sown and break the neck of the calf there by the stream... and say ...`atone for Your people Israel...'"].11 When murder is common this practice is not followed.c

We are commanded to remove all possible sources of danger to life -- for example, to build a parapet around a roof -- and it is forbidden to refrain from doing so, as it says "You shall make a fence for your roof and you shall not put blood in your house".12 All practices that are potentially dangerous to life must be avoided. It is forbidden to lead anyone astray and in particular to tempt him to sin, as it says "And you shall not put an obstacle before a blind man".13,d

[If we find someone in difficulty we are commanded to help him; for example,] if someone's animal is crushed under a heavy load we are commanded to help him unload and reload it and it is forbidden to ignore him, as it says "[If you see your enemy's ass crouching under its load...] you shall unload with him",14 and it says "You shall not see your brother's ass [or his ox fallen on the road and ignore them]; you shall lift up with him".l5,e

Sources:

1. Ex. 20:13; Deut. 5:17 a. 1:1,4-11,14
2. Ex. 21:20; see Lev. 24:17,21 b. 5:1; 8:1,9
3. Num. 35:31,33 c. 9:1-3,12; 10:1,9
4. Num. 35:12 d. 11:1,3-5
5. Deut. 25:12 e. 13:1-2
6. Deut. 22:26
7. Lev. 19:16
8. Num. 35:25-32
9. Deut. 18:2ff; see Num. 35:10ff
10. Num. 35:6
11. Deut. 21:lff
12. Deut. 22:8
13. Lev. 19:14
14. Ex. 23:5
15. Deut. 22:4



 






ARTICLES ON NETZAVIM AND VAYEILECH:

View Complete List

Blessing As A Precursor of Teshuva
Rabbi Yissocher Frand - 5769

Do It For the Kids
Rabbi Yaakov Menken - 5759

Parshios Netzavim & Vayeilech
Shlomo Katz - 5771

Looking for a Chavrusah?

The Whole Year!
Rabbi Label Lam - 5772

Jewish Reactions
Rabbi Berel Wein - 5761

On a Personal Note
Rabbi Yochanan Zweig - 5770

> Long Way Back
Rabbi Berel Wein - 5773

Afraid to Miss the Parade
Rabbi Label Lam - 5763

The 'New' of the New Year
Rabbi Dovid Green - 5758

ArtScroll

Passing Yichus
Rabbi Aron Tendler - 5761

A Poor Man's Prayer
Shlomo Katz - 5759

Waking Up in Time
Rabbi Label Lam - 5762

Frumster - Orthodox Jewish Dating

Can the Sun Just Not Rise?
Rabbi Yisroel Ciner - 5758

G-d's Concealment
Shlomo Katz - 5761

Judging the Day of Judgement
Rabbi Eliyahu Hoffmann - 5764

"The Man Who Blesses Himself In His Heart Saying..." Wasn't Totally Wrong
Rabbi Yissocher Frand - 5771



Project Genesis

Torah.org Home


Torah Portion

Jewish Law

Ethics

Texts

Learn the Basics

Seasons

Features

TORAHAUDIO

Ask The Rabbi

Knowledge Base




Help

About Us

Contact Us



Free Book on Geulah!




Torah.org Home
Torah.org HomeCapalon.com Copyright Information