Torah.org Home Subscribe Services Support Us
 
Print Version

Email this article to a friend


L. Property - Kinyan

"In the twelfth book I will include commandments regarding sale and acquisition. And I have called this book the Book of Property."

69. Sale - Mechirah

A sale or rental is not final until the proper form of acquisition has been followed. Real estate is acquired by exchange, by payment, by a bill of sale, or by taking possession. Movable property is acquired, once its price has been settled, by lifting it; by renting or buying land together with it; by exchange; by pulling it (or leading it, if it is an animal; this method applies only in certain types of domains); by turning it over to the buyer (if it is too heavy to lift or pull; this applies only off the seller's property); or by bringing it onto the buyer's property. Intangibles and things that are not yet in the seller's possession cannot be acquired; but bills can be acquired rabbinically by bill of sale and turning over, or with land.a

A forced sale is valid unless the seller has annulled it in advance. A sale or gift can be contingent on conditions; these must be made in advance and must explicitly specify the alternatives ("if... and if not...") unless the sale is to be retroactive. In any case the conditions must be feasible, and in non-business matters (marriage, divorce, etc.) they must not be in conflict with the Torah. A promise to sell or give if certain conditions are met is not a binding sale unless it is registered in court; but it is not proper to go back on one's word.b

It is forbidden for the buyer or seller or renter of real, movable property to deceive, as it says "And if you sell a sale to your friend or buy from your friend you shall not cheat each other".1 If the deception is qualitative or amounts to more than a sixth of the price the sale can be annulled. It is also forbidden to insult anyone; and there are special prohibitions against cheating or insulting a proselyte, as it says "And you shall not cheat each other but shall fear your G-d",2 and it says "You shall not cheat a stranger and you shall not oppress him".3,c

In all matters of business local customs and civil laws can be followed.d

Sources:

1. Lev. 25:14 a. 1:3,18; 2:5; 3:1,4,7-9; 4:1,3,11-12; 5:1,5,14; 6:11-12,14; 22:1,5,13
2. Lev. 25:17 b. 7:8; 10:1; 11:1-2,13; Zechiah u-Mattanah 3:6-8; Ishus 6:1-2, 9,13-17
3. Ex. 22:20; see Lev. 19;33, Ex. 23:9 c. 12:1,4; 13:8,17; 14:12,15; 17:1-2
d. 26:8; 27:11; Zechiah u-Mattanah 1:15



 






ARTICLES ON NOACH:

View Complete List

The Miracle of Free Will
Rabbi Elly Broch - 5765

Wine and Window Washers
Rabbi Naftali Reich - 5770

A Flood of Something...
Rabbi Label Lam - 5763

Frumster - Orthodox Jewish Dating

The Din of the Din
Rabbi Label Lam - 5775

Constant Taking is Self Destructing
Rabbi Dovid Green - 5759

Perceptions - Noach
Rabbi Pinchas Winston - 5769

Looking for a Chavrusah?

Flooded With Real Ecstasy
Rabbi Naftali Reich - 5774

Intellectual Beliefs
Shlomo Katz - 5758

The Gift of Meat
Rabbi Yisroel Ciner - 5761

> A Sobering Lesson
- 5768

Nourishment for the Soul
Shlomo Katz - 5760

Window to the World
Rabbi Mordechai Kamenetzky - 5762

ArtScroll

The Day Falsehood Married Destruction
Shlomo Katz - 5761

When the Illegitimate Becomes Legitimate
Rabbi Yissocher Frand - 5758

Worlds Apart
Rabbi Yisroel Ciner - 5764

Investing in the Land
Shlomo Katz - 5767



Project Genesis

Torah.org Home


Torah Portion

Jewish Law

Ethics

Texts

Learn the Basics

Seasons

Features

TORAHAUDIO

Ask The Rabbi

Knowledge Base




Help

About Us

Contact Us



Free Book on Geulah!




Torah.org Home
Torah.org HomeCapalon.com Copyright Information