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Chapter 48: 1-3
The Five Species of Grain

1. A loaf made from the five species of grain [wheat, barley, rye, oats, and spelt] that is categorized as pas habo'oh b'kisnin [is not considered bread]. If one eats less than the measure of a normal meal from it (see Law 3), there is no necessity to wash one's hands before partaking of it, and the blessing hamotzi is not recited over it. Rather, the blessing borey minei mezonos is recited before partaking of it, and the blessing al hamichyoh is recited before partaking of it, and the blessing al hamichyoh is recited afterwards.

Nevertheless, if one eats the measure of a normal meal from such food, it is considered just as regular bread. One must wash one's hands before partaking of it. Hamotzi is recited beforehand, and the grace after meals after one concludes eating.

2. What is categorized as pas habo'oh b'kisnin? Some opinions say that this refers to [pies - i.e.,] pastry whose dough resembles pockets that are filled with fruit, meat, cheese,* or the like; similarly, dough that is baked like crullers.

* {The Shulchon Oruch HoRav 168:10 and the Mishnah B'rurah 168:94 maintain that meat pies, cheese pies, or vegetable pies that are eaten as the basis of a meal are not considered to be pas habo'oh b'kisnin. }

Others say that it refers to dough that was kneaded with oil, honey, milk, eggs, or other mei peiros. Furthermore, even if water was also kneaded into the dough, as long as these liquids are the majority, such a loaf is considered pas habo'oh b'kisnin.

We accept the leniencies* of both these opinions** and classify both types of baked goods as pas habo'oh b'kisnin.

* {In his Piskei Siddur, Rav Shneur Zalman of Liadi states that a G-d-fearing person should eat pas habo'oh b'kisnin only in the midst of a meal in which he has eaten bread.}

** {The Shulchon Oruch HoRav 168:12 and the Mishnah B'rurah 168:35 also quote a third opinion, which defines pas habo'oh b'kisnin as crackers.}

3. The measure of a normal meal is not determined individually, but rather depends on the majority of people - what they would normally eat at an afternoon or evening meal to be satisfied.* If a person eats this quantity of pas habo'oh b'kisnin, even though he personally is not satisfied, he must follow the laws required for a meal of bread.

* { The concept of eating to the point of satisfaction is significant regarding this law and many of the others mentioned in this chapter.When a person eats to the point of satisfaction, the obligation to recite grace takes on the severity of a Torah command. Thus, the ruling "one must adopt stringencies in cases regarding doubt concerning a Torah command" applies. In contrast, if one has not eaten to the point of satisfaction, the obligation to recite grace is only Rabbinic in origin. Hence, leniency amy be exercised in cases of doubt.}

If a person eats pas habo'oh b'kisnin together with other foods, he must consider whether other would be satisfied when eating such a meal. A person must also follow the rules governing partaking of bread if he is satisfied after eating a small measure of pas habo'oh b'kisnin without any other foods, even though other people would not be satisfied by this amount unless they ate it together with other foods.*

* { There are many opinions among the Sages concerning the exact amount implies by the "the measure of a normal meal." The Piskei Siddur of Rav Shneur Zalman of Liadi and the Mishnah B'ruroh 168:24 maintain that one should not eat more than a quantity equal to four k'beitzim of pas habo'oh b'kisnin, except in the midst of a meal in which he as eaten bread.}

   The Five Species of Grain
Paragraphs 4-6
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