1. It is a Biblical commandment to sanctify the Shabbos verbally, as
[Exodus 20:8] states: "Remember ("Zachor") the day of Shabbos [so as] to
sanctify it;" in other words: articulate (1) [the concept of Shabbos] in a
way that praises and sanctifies it (2).
[The concept of Shabbos] must be articulated as it commences, through [the
recitation of] Kiddush, and as it departs, through [the recitation of]
Havdalah (3). The Sages ordained that this articulation should be over a
cup of wine, both at the commencement and departure of Shabbos.
(1) The Hebrew word "Zachor," which is usually translated as "remember,"
can also mean "articulate" in certain contexts. Another example of this is
the verse: "Remember ("Zachor") this day on which you left Egypt..."
(Exodus 13:3), which the Rambam holds is the source for the commandment to
verbally recount the story of the Exodus from Egypt on the first night of
Passover (Mishna Torah, Book of Seasons, Laws of Chometz and Matzah, 7:1).
(2) My translation of this sentence does not match the words in the Hebrew
text that I have in front of me. In my opinion, the sentence, as it appears
in my Hebrew text, is a misprint, firstly, because it doesn't make sense,
and secondly, because the first half of it is a direct quote from the
Rambam (Laws of Shabbos, 29:1), and if two letters are changed in the
second half of the sentence, then it becomes a complete quote from the
Rambam. The Hebrew words in my text of the Kitzur Shulchan Aruch are
"Zochrehu Zechiras Shabbos BaKiddush," whereas the Rambam reads " Zochrehu
Zechiras Shevach VeKiddush." If any of you have a text of the Kitzur which
concords with my reading of this sentence, please let me know.
(3) In other words, both Kiddush and Havdalah are aspects of one Mitzvah,
derived from a single verse: "Remember the day of Shabbos [so as] to