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Chapter 81:4
Four Domains on Shabbos

4. What is meant by a "Carmelis"? An area that is not a public thoroughfare, and is also not surrounded by partitions or walls [that are high enough to define the area as a "Reshus HaYochid" ("private domain")]. Examples of a "Carmelis" include:

(a) Fields.

(b) Streams that are at least ten "tefachim" (1) deep, and at least four "tefachim" wide.

(c) Alleys surrounded by [only] three walls.

(d) An "Itztevanis" (an open area before a storefront where merchants sit.

(e) An "Itztaboh" (a display platform for merchandise) that is located in front of the pillars in the public domain, and that is four "tefachim" wide and between three and ten "tefachim" high.

(f) An area four "tefachim" by four "tefachim," that is surrounded by paritions less than ten "tefachim" high.

(g) A mound that is four "tefachim" by four "tefachim" and is between three and ten "tefachim" high. (h) A pit that is four "tefachim" by four "tefachim" and is between three and ten "tefachim" deep.

There are many other examples of "Carmelis." (The term "Carmelis" is a combination of two terms, "rach" and "mol", literally meaning something that is neither wet nor dry, but in an intermediate state. Similarly, a "Carmelis" is neither a "Reshus HaRabim" ("private domain") - for the partitions around it are not sufficient - nor a "Reshus HaRabim" ("public domain") - because its not a public thoroughfare).


(1) A 'tefach' ('handbreadth') is approximately 3 inches.

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