Alan and Paula Goldman
in memory of Sam W. Goldman
At the end of each parashah, many chumashim state the number of
verses in that parashah and what word or phrase can be used to
remember that number. The mnemonic device traditionally used to
remember that this parashah has 101 verses is the name of the
angel "Micha'el." (The gematria of Micha'el equals 101.) Why?
R' Heschel of Krakow (16th century) explains as follows: We
will read in next week's parashah that, after the sin of the
golden calf, Hashem wanted to send an angel - according to the
midrash, it was Micha'el - to accompany Bnei Yisrael through the
desert. Moshe demanded, however, that Hashem lead Bnei Yisrael
Himself, without an intermediary.
After Moshe's death, we read that this same angel appeared to
Yehoshua, saying that he had been sent to lead Bnei Yisrael in
battle. We find, therefore, that wherever Moshe was, the angel
could not be, but when the former was gone, the latter
reappeared. This is why the angel Micha'el is alluded to by our
parashah, for it is the only one in the three middle books of the
Torah in which Moshe's name is not mentioned. (Chanukat Hatorah)
R' David Feinstein shlita offers another answer: Most of this
parashah relates to the garments of the Kohen Gadol. Micha'el,
Chazal teach, is the Kohen Gadol among the angels serving in the
heavenly Bet Hamikdash.
(Quoted in The Stone Chumash p.483)
"And you, you shall command Bnei Yisrael that they shall
take to you pure, pressed olive oil to kindle the lamp
"And you, you shall bring near to yourself your brother
Aharon and his sons . . ." (28:1)
Why, in both of these verses, is the word "you" repeated?
("Tetzaveh" means "You shall command. Therefore, "Attah
tetzaveh" means, "You, you shall command.") Ramban explains that
Moshe was commanded to carry out these verses himself, without an
intermediary - but why? R' Yosef Zvi Salant z"l (20th century;
When Hashem first appointed Moshe to lead Bnei Yisrael out of
Egypt, Moshe resisted the appointment. Eventually, the Torah
tells us (Shmot 4:14), "The wrath of Hashem burned against
Moshe." The gemara explains (based on the continuation of that
verse) that at that moment, Hashem informed Moshe that Aharon,
and not Moshe himself, would be the progenitor of the priestly
clan, the kohanim.
One might mistakenly think that Moshe thereby forfeited his
stature as the foremost leader of Bnei Yisrael. The repetition
of the word "you" in the verses quoted above teaches that this is
Both of the verses quoted above deal with the priesthood. In
the latter verse, Moshe is commanded to appoint Aharon and his
sons to their role as kohanim. In the former verse, Moshe is
commanded to prepare oil so that the kohanim could light the
menorah. The command that Moshe, and only Moshe, carry out the
directives of these verses was Hashem's way of showing deference
to Moshe. It demonstrates that Aharon was subservient to Moshe.
We read in Pirkei Avot that the world stands on three pillars:
Torah, avodah/the sacrificial service, and gemilut chassadim/acts
of kindness. Aharon represents avodah, but avodah is secondary
to Torah, which Moshe represents.
R' David Soloveitchik shlita explains the emphasis in the
verse, "And you, you shall bring near to yourself your brother
Aharon," in light of the halachah that a kohen gadol must be
appointed by the sanhedrin. In his day, Moshe was the sanhedrin
(Quoted in Shai Le'morah)
And those who were close to him were Karshina, Sheitar,
Admata, Tarshish, Merres, Marsina, Memuchan..."
The midrash writes that corresponding to King Achashveirosh's
seven advisors whose names are listed in the above verse were
seven angels who stood before G-d and defended Bnei Yisrael.
Each angel pleaded with Hashem using words related to the name of
one of the seven advisors.
One said, "If Achashveirosh defeats Bnei Yisrael, who will
sacrifice before You one year-old calves?" (Referred to in
Hebrew as "Par ben shanah" / similar to the name "Karshina")
The second said, "Who will sacrifice before You two doves?"
("Shtei Torim" / "Sheitar")
The third said, "Who will build for You an earthen altar?"
("Mizbach Adamah"/ "Admata")
The fourth said, "Who will wear the bigdei kehunah/priestly
garments, which contain the gem called 'Tarshish'?"
The fifth said, "Who will stir the blood of the sacrifices?"
The sixth said, "Who will stir the flour offerings?"
Finally, the seventh said, "Who will prepare the altar before
When the angels concluded their pleas, Hashem answered, "Bnei
Yisrael are My sons. They are My friends. They are My
Why, of all of the mitzvot, did the angels single out these
seven? " Why didn't they ask, "Who will put on tefilin? Who
will lift the lulav?" R' Eliyahu Hakohen z"l explains:
Chazal teach that the day on which the Mishkan was completed
was as happy in G-d's "eyes" as the day on which He created the
world. When Adam was created, G-d had great expectations for his
future. Using his G-d given free will, Adam unfortunately
"frustrated" those plans (by eating from the Eitz Ha'daat), but
mankind was given a second chance when Bnei Yisrael received the
Torah and built the Mishkan. The day on which the Tabernacle was
dedicated was therefore as auspicious as the very day on which
the world was created.
Achashveirosh knew that. As the gemara notes, the purpose of
the party described at the beginning of the Megillah was to
celebrate the fact that, according to Achashveirosh's
calculations, the appointed time for the end of the exile had
come and gone without the Bet Hamikdash - successor to the
Mishkan - being rebuilt. He therefore donned the garments of the
Kohen Gadol (which had been captured in Nevuchadnetzar's war on
Yerushalayim) and defiantly celebrated the apparent victory of
evil over good. [The Talmud explains how he miscalculated the
date of Bnei Yisrael's redemption.]
The angels said to G-d, "Achashveirosh is celebrating the
demise of the Mishkan and its service. Haman says You are
sleeping. Tell us: Whose plan for the Mishkan will stand -
Achashveirosh's or Yours?"
(Sefer Midrash Talpiot)
R' Yosef ibn Aknin z"l born approx.1160 - died 1226
R' Yosef ben Yehuda ibn Aknin was the person for whom Rambam
wrote his Moreh Nevochim/Guide to the Perplexed. R' Yosef was
born in Ceuta, Morocco, but fled from there due to Moslem
oppression. He first settled in Alexandria, Egypt, where he
began corresponding with Rambam, and later, the great sage
invited R' Yosef to Cairo to study with him. When Rambam saw
that R' Yosef was troubled by the conflict between philosophy and
the teachings of the Prophets, Rambam wrote Moreh Nevochim to
resolve his student's doubts.
In 1186, R' Yosef moved to Aleppo, Syria, where he practiced
medicine. He continued his correspondence with Rambam, and many
of these letters are still extant. (Some of these letters refer
to the attacks of other rabbis on Rambam. In them, Rambam
explains that he is above caring about his personal reputation,
especially when his attackers are unworthy of a response.) In
response to the attacks of R' Shmuel ben Eli of Baghdad on
Rambam's Mishneh Torah, R' Yosef wanted to move to Baghdad and
open a yeshiva where he would defend his teacher's views.
However, Rambam dissuaded R' Yosef from giving up his medical
practice and trying to earn a living as a rosh yeshiva. After
Rambam's death, R' Yosef asked Rambam's son, R' Avraham, to
excommunicate R' Daniel Ha'Bavli (the leading student of R'
Shmuel be Eli) for his slights to the Rambam's honor, but R'
R' Yosef wrote a number of works, including a halachic work (in
Arabic) and commentaries on Pirkei Avot and Shir Ha'shirim.
(Sources: The Artscroll Rishonim, p. 88; Iggeret Ha'Rambam Le'Rav
Yosef, pp. 130-133)