As our parashah opens, G-d tells Moshe, "I appeared to Avraham,
Yitzchak and Yaakov as 'Kel Shakkai,' and My Name 'Hashem' I did
not reveal to them." R' Yitzchak Arieli z"l (mashgiach of
Yeshivat Merkaz Harav; author of Einayim La'mishpat) explains G-
d's message as follows:
,p> "Kel Shakkai," referring, as it does, to G-d's precise
measurement of creation, alludes to the Attribute of Strict
Justice, which demands strict measure-for-measure accounting.
This is the highest form of Divine Providence; indeed, in the
beginning, G-d's "design" called for the entire world to be
subject to Strict Justice. He knew, however, that the world
could not exist under that Attribute, so He paired it with the
Attribute of Mercy [see Rashi to Bereishit 1:1]. Nevertheless, G-
d did act pursuant to Strict Justice with the patriarchs, for
they were on a sufficiently lofty level.
(R' Arieli explains in passing that the difference between G-
d's "design" and His implementation is alluded to by the verse
(Tehilim 145:17): "Hashem is righteous in all His ways, and
magnanimous in all His deeds." G-d's true "ways" are based on
righteousness, i.e., differentiating between right and wrong -
Strict Justice. However, His deeds, are magnanimous, i.e.,
tempered with Mercy.)
R' Arieli continues: The level of Providence that was applied
to the patriarchs is reached by serving G-d with love, as it is
written (Yeshayah 48:8), "The seed of Avraham, My beloved." No
person ever reached this level except they. For their sons, in
contrast, Providence is tempered with Mercy, manifested by the
fact that the Exodus occurred before its time, i.e., before the
400 years passed.
In fact, Yaakov asked that his descendants merit to deserve
Hashem's favor even when subjected to Strict Justice - "May 'Kel
Shakkai' show you mercy" [Bereishit 43:14]. Then, the redemption
from Egypt would have been the complete and final redemption.
Instead, however, the difficulty of the subjugation required that
Hashem apply Mercy that was undeserved and end the exile early.
"This was the Aharon and Moshe to whom Hashem said, 'Take
Bnei Yisrael out of Egypt according to their legions.' They
were the ones who spoke to Pharaoh, king of Egypt, to take
Bnei Yisrael out of land of Egypt - this was Moshe and
Rashi observes: Sometimes (as in verse 27) Moshe is mentioned
before Aharon; sometimes (as in verse 26) Aharon comes before
Moshe. The Torah does this to teach us that the two brothers
R' Aharon Soloveitchik shlita (Rosh Yeshiva of Yeshivas Brisk-
Chicago) asks: In what respect were Moshe and Aharon equals?
Isn't one of Judaism's basic beliefs that Moshe was superior to
any other prophet?
He answers: The midrash applies to Moshe and Aharon the verse
(Tehilim 85:11), "Kindness (chessed) and truth (emet) met;
righteousness (tzedek) and peace (shalom) kissed." The midrash
explains that Moshe and Aharon emphasized different traits - in
Moshe's case, emet and tzedek; in Aharon's, chessed and shalom.
What this midrash teaches is that the traits of both Moshe and
Aharon were crucial to accomplishing the Exodus. This also is
what Rashi means when he says that the two brothers were equals.
How did each contribute to the Exodus? The Torah relates
(Shmot 6:10-12) that when Hashem told Moshe to demand Bnei
Yisrael's release of Pharaoh, Moshe responded with a kal
va'chomer: if the Jews themselves will not listen to me,
certainly Pharaoh will not listen to me. In the next verse,
Hashem speaks to Moshe and Aharon, commanding them to address
both Bnei Yisrael and Pharaoh concerning the Jews' leaving Egypt.
Yet, we do not find that Hashem explicitly responds to Moshe's
logical argument. Why? Because Hashem wanted to teach Moshe
that the destiny of the Jewish people is not governed by logic.
We cannot understand the history of the Jewish people by simple
Bnei Yisrael also had to be taught this lesson, and that was
Aharon's job in verse 26 quoted above. Hashem had appointed
Aharon to be Moshe's spokesman to Bnei Yisrael, and this is why
Aharon is listed first in the pasuk which does not mention
speaking to Pharaoh. On the other hand, it was Moshe's job to
speak to Pharaoh; therefore, in verse 27, Moshe is mentioned
Why were the respective responsibilities divided thus? When
dealing with others, one must have recourse to chessed, emet,
tzedek and shalom. However, when dealing with Bnei Yisrael,
Aharon's traits - chessed and shalom - must be predominant. On
the other hand, when speaking with Pharaoh (or non-Jews in
general), greater measures of Moshe's traits - emet and tzedek -
are called for.
(The Warmth and the Light p.113)
"Pharaoh summoned Moshe and Aharon and said, 'Go - bring
offerings to your G-d in the land [of Egypt].'
"Moshe said, 'It would not be proper to do so, for we will
offer the deity of Egypt [i.e., sheep] to Hashem, our G-d.
Behold, if we were to slaughter the deity of Egypt in their
sight, will they not stone us?'" (8:21-22)
R' Yaakov Moshe Charlap z"l (died 1951; Rosh Yeshiva of
Yeshivat Merkaz Harav) interprets Moshe's response as follows:
"You, Pharaoh, could protect us while we sacrificed to Hashem,
but it still would not be proper for us to slaughter sheep in
view of the Egyptians because it would cause the Egyptians pain."
Thus, Onkelos translates the last words of Moshe's statement, not
as, "will they not stone us," but as, "will they not say that we
should be stoned?" The fact that our actions will cause such
pain to certain people that they will want to stone us is
sufficient reason for us to not bring our sacrifices on Egyptian
R' Charlap adds: We can learn from this that even an important
mitzvah should not be done in a way that will cause others pain,
no matter how silly or nonsensical the reason for that pain.
(Mei Marom, Vol. V)
"Pharaoh's heart became strong and he did not send out Bnei
Yisrael . . ." (9:35)
Why is Pharaoh's refusal to listen to Hashem referred to as
having a strong heart? Does this imply that one who does listen
to Hashem is weak? R' Baruch Ezrachi shlita (Rosh Yeshiva of
Yeshivat Ateret Yisrael in Yerushalayim) explains as follows:
Many commentaries asked: Was it fair to bring the plagues on
Pharaoh if his heart was hardened and he could do nothing to
avoid the plagues? Ramban answers that the hardening of
Pharaoh's heart did not destroy his free will; to the contrary,
it restored his ability to choose. Had Pharaoh released Bnei
Yisrael as a result of one of the plagues, he would not have been
doing so of his own free will. Rather, he would have done so
because the plagues coerced him to act.
Based on Ramban's explanation, we can understand why the Torah
speaks here and elsewhere of "strengthening Pharaoh's heart."
Pharaoh's heart, his will, was weakened by the plagues, and it
had to be strengthened so that it would be in equilibrium. Then,
and only then, would Pharaoh have free will.
(Birkat Mordechai p.257)
Letters from Our Sages
This week's letter was written in the summer of 1806 from R'
Akiva Ginz z"l (1761-1837; better known today as R' Akiva Eiger)
to "my friend, the excellent rabbi who is diligent and learned,
the honorable officer, our teacher, R' Lazer, may his light
shine." Despite this glowing salutation, the identity of the
recipient is unknown.
The letter's recipient apparently had asked R' Akiva Eiger to
check his son's progress in learning. The letter not only shows
us how R' Akiva Eiger saw his mission in life, but also reflects
the battle that was being fought in Eastern Europe at that time
between the adherents of the pilpul method of study (weaving
intricate, but often flimsy, webs of Torah sources as an
intellectual exercise) and the proponents of a return to p'shat
(seeking the plain and practical meaning of the gemara).
Although the writer addresses his correspondent in the third
person (e.g., "His honor's letter . . . reached me"), we present
the letter in the second person to make it more readable.
Your honor's letter which was sent with your son, may he live
long, reached me today. Regarding your request that I test your
son and examine him, I am ready - indeed, I am ready - to do your
will, to do what is good for you - this and more. This is
particularly true, when it comes to a mitzvah such as this, in
that my only desire and goal is to water the rows of saplings
which are sure to produce fruit. More than the calf etc. [Ed.
Note: From Pesachim 112a, "More than the calf wants to drink, the
cow wants to nurse." In other words, the recipient of a kindness
is at the same time doing an even greater kindness for the
At the present time, however, it has not worked out, for I told
your son, may he live long, that he should take some time to
study a sugya (section of Talmud) which I would show him, so that
he should then present that sugya to me. He said that he does
not have time for that because he is staying with one of his
friends and will be going home tomorrow. He wanted instead to
tell me a pilpul, but that is not my style. I cannot assess the
quality of a person through a pilpul, only through learning a
sugya to determine whether he stands on a foundation of truthful
Accordingly, your will was not done. If your son comes back to
here to spend a day or two I will take the time, with Hashem's
[Signed] Your friend who seeks your well-being with my heart and
[This postscript was written six days later]
As things worked out, your son stayed here for Shabbat, and
today he made a presentation to me of a sugya. It appears that
he is ready to be filled with purity if he continues to study
regularly. G-d willing, if your honor will send him to me and he
will have an excellent young man as a study partner, so that the
two of them may learn together regularly, he will attain true
[Signed] The Aforesaid