This week's parashah contains civil laws and laws regarding the
judicial system, two types of rules without which no society could
exist. Rashi writes that the parashah begins with the conjunction
"And" to remind us that just as the Aseret Ha'dibrot in last week's
parashah were given at Sinai, so the laws in this week's parashah were
given at Sinai.
Why must the Torah remind us of this fact? R' Yitzchak Meir
Alter z"l (died 1866; the first "Gerrer Rebbe," known as the
"Chiddushei Ha'rim") explains that because these laws are both
essential and logical, there is a risk that one would think that they
are man-made. The Torah therefore instructs us that they were given
at Sinai and that they should be observed, not because they are
logical, but because they are G-d's will.
Rashi writes that Moshe might not have taught Bnei Yisrael the
reasons for the mitzvot in this parashah, but Hashem commanded that he
should. The Sefat Emet (the second "Gerrer Rebbe") explains similarly
that Moshe did not want the Jewish people to observe the mitzvot
because they agreed with the reasons. He wanted to ensure that Bnei
Yisrael observed the mitzvot as G-d's decrees.
Hashem told Moshe, "No! Teach them the reasons. The real
challenge is to understand the mitzvot and nevertheless to observe
them solely because that is the will of Hashem." (Quoted in Ma'ayanah
"When you lend money to My people, to the poor person who is
with you . . ." (22:24)
The Gemara (Ta'anit 24b-25a) relates that the sage Rabbi Chaninah
ben Dosa was so poor that his weekly consumption of food was limited
to a quart of carobs. (Rashi writes that R' Chaninah could not even
afford bread for Shabbat.) The Gemara continues:
His wife said to him, "How long will we suffer so?" He
responded, "What shall I do?" She answered, "Pray that you
be given something." He prayed, and he was presented with a
golden table leg. Thereafter, he [some say, she] dreamt that
all of the tzaddikim in Heaven sat at tables with three legs,
while R' Chaninah sat at a table with only two legs. He
discussed this with his wife and then prayed that the table
leg be taken away from him.
R' Yehonatan Eyebschutz z"l (died 1764) asks several questions
regarding this gemara: Why was R' Chaninah's wife complaining? Surely
she was righteous like her husband and was not troubled by poverty!
Also, why do all tzaddikim sit at three-legged tables, and what is the
meaning of R' Chaninah's losing a table leg? He explains as follows:
The complaint of R' Chaninah's wife was not that she was hungry
but, rather, that she could not perform the mitzvah of tzedakah. It
pained her to see a poor person and to know that she could do nothing
to ease his suffering. She therefore asked her husband to pray that
Hashem give them the means to give charity.
However, what happened as a result of R' Chaninah's prayers was
the opposite of what his wife intended. When a person truly desires
to perform a mitzvah but he is prevented from doing so by
circumstances that are completely beyond his control, Hashem views it
as if that person had, in fact, performed that mitzvah. Thus, so long
as R' Chaninah and his wife were paupers and were unable to give
charity, Hashem judged them as if they actually had given a great deal
On the other hand, when a person does have money and actually
gives charity, he can never be sure that he has performed the mitzvah
properly. Has he given as much as he should? Has he prioritized his
donations properly? Has he, in fact, given substantial sums of money
to people who were not deserving?
The three-legged tables in R' Chaninah's (or his wife's) dream
represented the three pillars on which the world stands: Torah study,
prayer and acts of kindness. Tzaddikim who have served Hashem in each
of the three areas sit at tables with three legs. Had R' Chaninah and
his wife remained poor, they also would have sat at a three-legged
table because Hashem would have credited them with the mitzvah of
charity (i.e. kindness) that they wanted to perform but couldn't.
However, once they became wealthy, they became obligated to give
charity, and they risked losing a table leg if they did not perform
the mitzvah properly.
(Ya'arot Devash Vol. I, end of Drush 4)
"Yesod Ve'shoresh Ha'avodah"
("The Foundation and Root of Divine Service")
This year, we are presenting excerpts from the work Yesod
Ve'shoresh Ha'avodah by R' Alexander Ziskind z"l (died 1794).
The primary theme of this work is improving one's
concentration in prayer. In Sha'ar Ha'ashmoret, Chapter 4,
the author continues to discuss the blessings recited upon
awakening. He writes:
Know this rule: All of the blessings that the Men of the Knesset
Ha'gedolah [the assembly of sages at the beginning of the Second
Temple Period] enacted--whether blessings on mitzvot, blessings of
praise or blessings on pleasure--have as their straightforward
purpose, aside from any lofty secrets, to cause man to remember G-d
and His Dominion at all times. This reason is expressed by Rambam in
Hilchot Tefilah, chapter 1, paragraph 3.
Accordingly, one must certainly take care that every one of the
blessings of praise that leaves his lips, for example the Birchot
Ha'shachar / Morning Blessings, be recited while concentrating on the
praise of Hashem to which that blessing relates. [In other words, a
person must know what each blessing means.] If one does not think
about praises of Hashem that relate to the subject of each blessing,
how will he come to love and be in awe of His Dominion?
Now [R' Alexander Ziskind writes], I will begin to explain the
simplest meaning of each of the blessings, for a blessing recited
without such an understanding is equivalent to piggul / an invalid
sacrificial offering. Furthermore, such a recitation cannot be called
a "berachah," for that word connotes blessing and praising the
The blessing of "He give the sechvi understanding" refers to the
heart's ability to distinguish between night and day. Because a
rooster can distinguish between night and day, it also is called a
"sechvi." Others write that the blessing actually refers to the
rooster; we thank Hashem for creating roosters to awaken us. One who
recites this blessing should feel great joy that Hashem has created
such creatures. Moreover, one should feel great joy that man was
given the understanding to be able to recognize Hashem's wonders.
In the blessing of "He did not make me an idolator" [such was the
version recited by R' Alexander Ziskind], the phrase "He did not make
me" refers to the circumstances of the individual's birth.
[Presumably the author means to avoid the question, "How can I thank
G-d for not making me an idolator when it is within my free will to
become an idolator?"] One should feel immense joy that he was created
with the ability to know G-d rather than being created as an idolator
who knows nothing of G-d and His Torah. If a person would truly
reflect on this gift, how could his heart not burn with joy when he
recites this blessing?!
R' Yerucham Fishel Perla z"l
Except to those who have studied his encyclopedic commentary to
the Sefer Ha'mitzvot by the 9th century Babylonian and Egyptian sage,
R' Saadiah Gaon, R' Perla is virtually unknown. And, that is as he
would have wanted. He was born in Warsaw in 1846 and studied under R'
Yehoshua Leib Diskin in Lomza and under R' Yosef Dov Halevi
Soloveitchik. While he was still young, he was offered prestigious
rabbinates, including in Lublin and Krakow, but he turned them down so
he could continue his studies. His livelihood during this period came
from a store that his wife operated.
R' Perla began writing his commentary on Sefer Ha'mitzvot when he
was 30 years old, and he continued to devote himself to the task for
the next four decades. For 14 of those years, he barely left his
study. Even his meals were sent in to him. And, since the window of
his study adjoined a shul, he did not need to leave his room for
R' Perla's work is considered to have opened up R' Saadiah Gaon's
previously inaccessible Sefer Ha'mitzvot. Although tradition says
that there are 613 mitzvot, no definitive list of those commandments
exists; thus, many medieval writers composed their own. [There is
little practical consequence to whether a given halachah is one of the
613 commandments or merely an offshoot of one, and Ramban makes clear
that it is not even an article of faith that there are exactly that
number of commandments.] Some authors of such lists explained what
their criteria were for including a mitzvah on the list of 613 or
omitting it, but R' Saadiah did not do so. This was one of the
reasons that his work was not widely studied until R' Perla's magnum
opus was published.
In his eightieth year, R' Perla settled in Yerushalayim, and he
died there on 30 Shevat 5694 (1934). (Source: Kedoshim Asher
The editors hope these brief 'snippets' will engender further study
and discussion of Torah topics ('lehagdil Torah u'leha'adirah'), and
your letters are appreciated. Web archives at Torah.org start with 5758 (1997) and
may be retrieved from the Hamaayan page.
Text archives from 1990 through the present may be retrieved from http://www.acoast.com/~sehc/hamaayan/.
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