Volume 22, No. 5
22 Marcheshvan 5768
November 3, 2007
The Parness family
in memory of Max Parness a"h
Rabbi and Mrs. Sam Vogel and family
in memory of father and grandfather
Aharon Yehuda ben Yisroel a"h (Leon Vogel)
Mrs. Rochelle Dimont and family
on the yahrzeits of
grandmother and great-grandmother, Chaya Sarah Tarshish a"h
mother-in-law and grandmother, Chana Dimont a"h
father and grandfather Rabbi Elazar Tarshish a"h
David and Sarah Maslow and family
in memory of his father Archie Maslow a"h (18 Marcheshvan)
and her father Samuel Holstein a"h (25 Marcheshvan)
This week we read of the final years of the life of Avraham Avinu.
According to some commentaries, our parashah also describes the last of
Avraham's ten tests - having to negotiate with the local population over a
burial place for Sarah.
R' Eliyahu Bakshi-Doron shlita (former Sephardic Chief Rabbi of Israel)
writes that the story of Avraham's life consists of three elements: the
ten tests, his chessed / kindness, and his emunah / faith. How are these
inter-related? R' Bakshi-Doron explains:
What does it mean when we say that G-d tests a person? G-d, after all,
knows what the outcome will be! Ramban z"l explains that G-d tests man in
order to cause man to realize his potential. Man may have the spiritual
potential to achieve great things, but unless G-d "tests" him, man may
never have an opportunity to actualize that potential. Because G-d wants
to reward man for doing good, not just for having a good heart, G-d wants
man to fulfill his potential.
Avraham's emunah / faith was sincere and deeply held, but until he acted
on it, it existed merely in the form of "potential." Emunah is not an end
in itself, R' Bakshi-Doron writes. Rather, it is how one's emunah causes
him to act that matters.
Chessed is an expression of emunah. One who believes in G-d and trusts in
Him will not hesitate to share his time and his property with others.
Such a person knows that all that he has comes from G-d and that G-d
ultimately determines how much man receives. On the other hand, one whose
belief in G-d is weak tends to adopt an "every man for himself" attitude.
Avraham's ten tests made his emunah a reality. In turn, Avraham's emunah
brought out the trait of chessed. (Binyan Av)
"Hashem had blessed Avraham `bakol' / with everything." (24:1)
Rashi comments: The gematria of "bakol" ("with everything") equals the
gematria of "ben" ("son"). Hashem blessed Avraham with a son, and now it
was time to find him a wife. [This verse and this comment of Rashi
introduce the story of Eliezer's mission to find a wife for Yitzchak.]
R' Ben-Zion Rabinowitz shlita (the Biala Rebbe in Yerushalayim) asks the
following: Why is the fact that Avraham had a son alluded to in this way?
Furthermore, one could infer from our parashah that Sarah's passing
somehow impelled Avraham to look for a wife for Yitzchak. Why was this so?
R' Rabinowitz explains: We read in last week's parashah that Sarah
recognized before Avraham did that having Yishmael in the house posed a
spiritual danger to Yitzchak. Hashem had to tell Avraham (21:12), "Do
not be distressed over the youth [Yishmael] or your slavewoman [Hagar] –
Everything Sarah tells you, heed her voice, since through Yitzchak will
offspring be considered yours." From this we learn that Sarah had a
keener perception regarding matters of child rearing than Avraham did.
(Similarly, Rivka had greater insight into the personalities of her
children Yaakov and Esav than their father Yitzchak did.) In particular,
R' Rabinowitz writes, when it comes to shidduchim / matchmaking, a woman's
perception is greater than a man's. Therefore, a mother's opinion in these
matters should be given great weight.
Hashem had told Avraham, "Everything Sarah tells you, heed her voice."
Thus, as long as Sarah was alive, Avraham relied on her to raise and
care for Yitzchak. Only after Sarah died did Avraham turn his attention
to finding a wife for Yitzchak. [R' Rabinowitz does not explain why
Yitzchak did not marry while Sarah was alive.] This is what our verse
means: Once Sarah passed away, "Hashem blessed Avraham with everything."
Through gematria, "with everything" alludes to the fact that
Avraham had a son. Now, Avraham alone was responsible for everything
having to do with Yitzchak, so now it was time to find him a wife.
(Mevaser Tov: Zechut Nashim Tzidkaniyot p.65)
This week we continue to discuss the "Hetter Mechirah" / the sale of the
land to a gentile for the duration of the shemittah year. In particular,
we discuss one of the halachic objections to the sale and the responses of
those who permit the Hetter Mechirah.
The Torah states (Devarim 7:1-2), "When Hashem, your G-d, will bring
you to the Land, to which you come to possess it, and many nations will be
thrust away from before you -- the Hittite, the Girgashite, the Amorite,
the Canaanite, the Perizzite, the Hivvite, and the Jebusite . . . and
Hashem, your G-d, will deliver them before you, and you will smite
them . . . lo techonaim." What does "lo techonaim" mean? The gemara
(Avodah Zarah 20a) interprets, "You shall not give them chaniyah / an
encampment or resting place in the Land." In other words, one is seemingly
forbidden to transfer land in Eretz Yisrael to non-Jews.
If so, how can the Land be sold to a non-Jew for the shemittah year? The
following are among the answers offered:
(1) The Gemara cited above derives other (seemingly unrelated) laws from
the words "lo techonaim." In connection with one of those laws, the
Gemara interprets the word "techonaim" as coming from the
root "chinam" / "for no reason" (as in "sinat chinam" / "baseless
hatred"). Perhaps, then, only transferring Land to a non-Jew for no
reason is prohibited. However, if the Jew obtains a benefit, as here,
perhaps it is permitted.
(2) The prohibition applies only when it will result in Jews' losing
control of the Land. Selling the Land to a non-Jew for the duration of
the shemittah actually will result in strengthening Jewish control because
it will promote farming.
(3) Transferring Land to a non-Jew is prohibited only when there is a
Jewish buyer. In this case, it is as if there is no Jewish buyer, since
selling the Land to a Jew could not accomplish the same objective.
(4) The Torah does not say, "Do not sell the Land to a non-Jew," rather it
says, "You shall not give them an encampment in the Land." Here, where
the Land effectively remains in Jewish hands, the prohibition is not
(5) To whom does this prohibition apply? In context, the verse appears to
prohibit transferring land in Eretz Yisrael only to the seven Canaanite
nations listed in the verse. However, Tosafot (Avodah Zarah 20a) writes
that there is no reason to distinguish between those seven nations and any
other idolators. Perhaps, however, the prohibition does not apply to non-
Jews who are not idolators. Moslems are not idolators in the eyes of
(6) The Torah prohibits granting non-Jews a place to encamp in Eretz
Yisrael. However, if the non-Jew is already there, e.g., an Arab who
lives in the Land already, the prohibition does not apply.
(7) The Land is sold only to the depth of the plants' roots. Since the
buyer's rights are so limited, for example, he has no right to dig a
foundation for a house, the prohibition is not transgressed.
[Sources: R' Avraham Yitzchak Hakohen Kook z"l, Shabbat Ha'aretz,
Introduction, pp. 52-55 and Mishpat Kohen, Nos. 60 & 63; R' Yechiel Michel
Tickochinsky z"l, Sefer Ha'shemittah, Ch. 10; R' Zvi Pesach Frank z"l, Har
Zvi, Yoreh Deah, No. 122; R' Yitzchak Isaac Halevi Herzog z"l, Pesakim
U'chetavim, Vol. III, No. 53; R' Shlomo Yosef Zevin z"l, L'ohr
Ha'halachah, pages 123-125. It should be noted that not all of the
authorities cited agree with all of the answers; indeed, each of the
answers can be challenged on various grounds, but space considerations
will not permit us to present all sides of the arguments.]
R' Avraham Elkanah Shapira z"l
Last week marked the shloshim of R' Avraham Elkanah Hakohen Shapira z"l,
rosh yeshiva of Yeshivat Merkaz Harav Kook and former Ashkenazic Chief
Rabbi of Israel. He passed away on the first day of Sukkot.
R' Shapira was born in Yerushalayim in 1913. He studied in the Etz Chaim
Yeshiva, and later in the Chevron Yeshiva. After his marriage he moved to
Yeshivat Merkaz Harav, where he later remained as a teacher. In 1956,
Israel's Ashkenazic Chief Rabbi, R' Yitzhak Halevi Herzog, appointed R'
Shapira to serve as a dayan / rabbinical court judge in the Bet Din
Hagadol / Supreme Rabbinical Court in Yerushalayim. In 1971, R' Shapira
was appointed head of the Bet Din Hagadol, and nine years later, he was
appointed a member of the Chief Rabbinate Council. Throughout these
years, R' Shapira continued to teach in Yeshivat Merkaz Harav. In 1982,
following the passing of R' Zvi Yehuda Kook, R' Shapira was appointed rosh
yeshiva / dean. The following year, he was elected to serve as Ashkenazic
Chief Rabbi of Israel, a position he held for a decade.
R' Shapira was recognized as a posek / halachic authority both in Israel
and abroad and was considered the spiritual leader of much of the
Religious Zionist community. His halachic rulings reflect uncompromising
support for the integrity and preservation of Eretz Yisrael and
settlements in the Land.
Tens of thousands participated in R' Shapira's funeral on the second day
of Sukkot (which in Israel is Chol Ha'moed). He was buried on Har
The editors hope these brief 'snippets' will engender further study
and discussion of Torah topics ('lehagdil Torah u'leha'adirah'), and
your letters are appreciated. Web archives at Torah.org start with 5758 (1997) and
may be retrieved from the Hamaayan page.
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