In the previous article we began to discuss how one go about announcing
the loss of an item. We saw that the finder is required to put up signs
in public places announcing the discovery of the item. What should one
write on these signs?
The notice should specify the type of item found so as to attract the
attention of the owner. However, its description should not be so
detailed as to reveal the identifying features - in order to identify the
item's true owner he must be able to give the simunim (identifying
features). If those simunim are already revealed on the sign then anyone
can claim ownership without identifying the unique simunim himself. For
example, if one found a bag with a number of items in it, the sign should
say that a bag was found and that it contained various items within it.
However, the nature of these items should not be mentioned so that any
claimant to the bag will have to specifically identify what items were in
The finder has the responsibility to be careful not to give the item to a
deceitful person who is not the true owner. There are ways in which such
a person may be able to discover the identifying features of the item and
use that knowledge to convince the finder that he is the owner.
Accordingly, even if the claimant gives the correct simunim, if the finder
suspects him of being dishonest then he must try to assess whether he is a
trustworthy individual. For example, the finder should ask for a reliable
reference who can attest to the claimant's honesty. Needless to say, a
relative or friend of the claimant does not qualify as being a reliable
reference. Only after the finder has ascertained the claimant's
reliability can he return the item. If the finder cannot be certain of his
reliability then he may not return it to the claimant unless he has
totally irrefutable proof that the item is his.**
*Much of the information for this essay is taken from "Halachos of Other
People's Money" by Rabbi Yisroel Pinchos Bodner.
**The main type of irrefutable proof are two valid 'witnesses' who
testify to the claimant's ownership. However, there are a number of
details as to who constitutes a valid witness so one should not rely on
such witnesses without consultation with an Orthodox Rabbi.