"One who 'spies' on his fellow [in order to find negative information to
report] transgresses a negative prohibition as it is stated, 'You shall not
go spying in your nation' (Leviticus 19:16). Even though one does not
receive lashes for [transgressing] this prohibition it is a very grave sin
and it causes the death of many souls in Israel. Therefore, [it is stated]
adjacent to it, 'Do not stand on your fellow's blood' (ibid.). See for
example (lit., 'go out and learn [from]') that which occurred to Do'eg the
Edomite (see I Samuel 21-22)."
"What is [the prohibition of] spying? It is when one bears words and brings
them from one [person] to the other, saying 'This is what so and so said;
this is what I heard about so and so.' Even though he is telling the truth,
behold he is destroying the world."
Last week we defined the prohibition the Rambam discusses here and began to
discuss the particular illustration of Do'eg. The prohibition against
"spying" involves snooping about to find juicy bits of gossip about A to
spread to B. The transgression, however, is not digging up the dirt alone,
but specifically in fanning up hatred among men, saying things such as:
"Guess what A said about you behind your back?" "Guess what A did to you
when you weren't looking?" etc.
We then described in some detail the sin of Do'eg -- how he informed King
Saul that the priests of Nov (Nob) assisted David in his flight from Saul.
Although the priests themselves had no inkling David was fleeing the king,
Saul, in his depressed paranoia, assuming the worst and ordered the
execution of the entire city. When even his soldiers refused such an order
Do'eg slew them himself.
As we pointed out, Do'eg's informing the king was a classic example of this
prohibition. Although he said nothing evil about the well-meaning priests
of Nov, his words fanned Saul's hatreds, culminating in catastrophic results.
To all of this we posed a basic question. Do'eg according to the Sages was
the head of the Sanhedrin (high court) and one of the greatest Torah
scholars of his age. How in the world could he stoop so low as to malign
David and personally slay a city full of priests? The Mishna (Sanhedrin
10:2) lists him as one of the few who was so sinful as to receive no share
in the World to Come -- the default birthright of every simple Jew?
I need to offer a brief disclaimer at this point. It's near impossible for
us to attempt to measure individuals so great and distant from us -- even
very wicked ones. It's all too easy for us to judge and castigate them
according to our own hopelessly inferior standards, and to see in them the
sort of faults which we've become accustomed to in ourselves. Thus, in
attempting to gain a better understanding of this topic, I will try to
stick as closely as possible to the statements of the Sages on the matter,
resisting the writer's temptation to embellish and elaborate in his own style.
First of all, Do'eg's implication of the men of Nov had a history behind
it. Do'eg had it in for David ever since David stepped onto the scene.
David was the sort that everyone naturally liked -- nice, unassuming,
unpretentious, not full of himself. He was great and devoted scholar
without being overweening, pious and sometimes reclusive without being
aloof. Handsome and of below-average height, he endeared himself to others
without intimidating or dominating -- as great people often do. And on top
of it all, he was a brave and heroic warrior, much admired and appreciated
by the nation.
Now someone who is just too good -- who really *is* worthy of kingship --
is bound to arouse jealousy -- certainly of Israel's current king. And
there were many other greats of the time who simply could not suffer
David's presence and who just had to find fault. Do'eg was one such person.
According to the Sages, he was actually the one who first suggested that
David become Saul's personal attendant and musician (I Samuel 16:18 and
Talmud Sanhedrin 93b). Yet even in doing so, he attempted to stir up the
very first hints of rivalry. In describing David's great abilities, Do'eg
intended to pique Saul's jealousies and eventually bring about David's
undoing (see again Talmud there).
We must now hazard a response to an even more vexing question. Okay,
perhaps even great people are not above simple jealousy. But how could so
great a Torah scholar slip so low? Doesn't Torah study ennoble and inspire?
Shouldn't it have made Do'eg a *better* human being, more kindly and
G-d-fearing than others, rather than less?
In fact, far greater people than we have been bothered by this question.
The Talmud (Chagigah 15b) records that once the great Talmudic scholar Rav
Yehuda was found *crying*. He said if such greats as Do'eg and Achitophel
(another enemy of David who lost his share in the hereafter -- see II
Samuel 15-17) could have gone sour and lost their share in the next world,
what hope have we? In fact, the Talmud there saw Isaiah 33:18 -- "Where is
the counter? Where is the weigher? Where is the counter of towers?" -- as
an allusion to the fact that G-d Himself, so to speak, "missed" Do'eg's and
Achitophel's great erudition, in their ability to fathom every letter of
the Torah ("the counter"), weigh every bit of logic ("the weigher"), and
pose 300 questions about a "tower floating in air." (The commentators offer
umpteen suggestions as to what in the world a "tower floating in air" is,
although my father OBM half-humorously saw in it an early rabbinic
reference to space travel (or at least air travel).) :-)
And so again, we are forced to pose the near-impossible question: How could
such greatness in Torah be no guarantee of closeness to G-d -- which we
would assume Torah study is all about? Where did such people go wrong? And
how can the likes of us, literally light years behind such people in G-d's
wisdom, have any hope of getting it right?
The Talmud makes two relevant comments regarding this. In response to the
Rav Yehuda's tears above, his fellow sage Sh'muel responded, "There was
dirt in their hearts." Elsewhere the Talmud states regarding Do'eg, "His
Torah was from the lips outwards" (Sanhedrin 106b). Meaning, they studied
and mastered the Torah but never truly took it to heart. Their study was
intellectual but not spiritual. They pored over the Torah's texts but never
approached it with a basic willingness to be changed and shaped by its
In another part of the Talmud, when it quotes the many questions Do'eg and
Achitophel posed on a "tower floating in air," the sage Rava responded:
"What great achievement is there in asking questions?" They posed a lot of
sharp questions, to be sure, but were they interested in the answers? Were
they just enjoying themselves applying their considerable minds to
intriguing theoretical cases, turning the details over and over again in
their minds posing every question imaginable. Perhaps even they purposely
discussed questions so hypothetical (if not literally in outer space) they
had no relevance to properly living as a Jew.
This also apprises us of a very real danger in Judaism -- of being too
great. It's not an oft-discussed issue, but many of the great geniuses in
Israel -- and we've had more than our share -- did not exactly turn out.
Some openly rebel against authority and some just basically amount to
nothing. It's the rare combination of genius plus complete dedication to
G-d and Israel that produces the very few leaders among us.
And this is because being too smart is a dangerous thing. Someone for whom
study comes so easily, who never has to put in any effort, really never
transformed himself in studying Torah. He didn't have to work, apply
himself, devote himself to G-d's Torah -- or pray that G-d assist him. It
all came without effort -- and changed him not at all in the process. The
Talmud there writes that G-d was "worried" about Do'eg all along. He was
clearly a high-risk individual. Enormous scholarship without effort really
does not make for people who can withstand the challenges of life -- and
certainly not of leadership. A little jealousy of upstart David, and he
became completely unraveled -- and vicious in his opposition.
(People often fret about the weaker students in our school system -- how
they fall behind, get frustrated, and are at risk of dropping out entirely.
It's worth pointing out, though, that the top 5% is also at very real risk.
They breeze through their studies effortlessly, and the entire effect Torah
study should have on a human being is completely lost on them. In fact in
the long run, some of the most outstanding scholars of Israel were only
average or above average students -- who struggled and sweated and worked
their way to greatness.)
Another important closely-related issue is that we tend to think that
accomplishment in Torah study automatically makes for great individuals.
Anyone who has tasted and become inspired by G-d's word must of necessity
become sanctified and transformed. And we often find young yeshiva
(rabbinical college) students falling in love with Torah study and devoting
themselves wholeheartedly to their studies. Certainly many of us do
experience such an uplifting transformation. Yet we must keep in mind,
there can be perfectly rational and non-metaphysical reasons for such a
transformation: people just like doing what they're good at. If you have
the brains and the IQ to enjoy Torah study -- and there is little on this
earth as intellectually satisfying -- then certainly you'll get a thrill
from advanced Torah study (as well as the honor it grants you) -- and you
may even stay up quite late at night pursuing your studies.
More generally, it's not difficult to envision a person who fully lives the
Torah life, but primarily does so because it's just the nicest way to live.
It certainly is: G-d Himself gave us this recipe for living. A person may
have simply realized that the higher pleasures of Torah study, stable
family life, enjoying a heaping portion of Sabbath cholent (and taking a
great big nap afterwards), etc. are superior to the baser pleasures of
hanging out on the streets and doing drugs.
People often wonder how rabbinical students today -- presumably the holiest
and most devoted element of society -- not rarely succumb to such pleasures
as heavy drinking and illicit use of the Internet. And at times such
thrills get the better of even relatively serious students. But keep in
mind, you can be a devoted student of Torah but still basically be a
hedonist. You've just found that for the great mind, Torah is the greatest
pleasure. Certainly, by far the majority of students do become religiously
inspired as well. But at the same time, young men today are not devoting
themselves to Torah study out of want and abject poverty. They come from
comfortable homes, expect all their creature comforts, and are basically
going to study because that's what everyone else does. And with that
dangerous mix of physical comfort plus intellectual enjoyment, a young man
may well be drawn to other fancies.
Anyway, this topic is a lengthy one and can be extended in many ways. But
I'll basically leave it with what we've said thus far and wrap up with one
more observation. The Talmud notes that in spite of Do'eg's great
erudition, he never merited to reach the correct conclusions -- in
accordance with Jewish law -- something that David did merit. And the
reason for this is that G-d only grants true understanding of His Torah to
those worthy, as it states, "The secret of G-d is to those who fear Him"
(Psalms 25:14; see Talmud Sanhedrin 106b and 93b).
This first of all is not as far-fetched as we might imagine. Anyone who has
engaged in advanced Talmudic studies (or abstract studies of any sort) can
appreciate that advanced learning has a lot of inconclusive conjecture and
deliberation. It's possible to have worked through the material fully but
to have minor shifts in logic lead one to the wrong conclusion. The Talmud
considers it to require Divine guidance for a person to have that instinct
for the truth -- a sense David was granted and Do'eg was not.
But the true idea behind this is far more profound. Torah study is not some
simple intellectual endeavor that anyone can come along and truly master.
G-d does not grant such to everyone. Before all else you must become the
type of person whom G-d would want to entrust His Torah to. And without
that, you may possess great wisdom -- which may well drive you to extremes
of wickedness as much as to goodness -- but without any real sense for
G-d's will. For greatness does not result from Torah study alone.
Ultimately it only resides within those worthy of being called servants of
(There's another important relevant point which the length of this class
did not permit me to touch upon. I did discuss it once in Pirkei Avos (2:5
www.torah.org/learning/pirkei-avos/chapter2-5b.html). If you're not too
tired of reading by now, you're welcome to view the discussion there. Be