Chanukah: The Shape of the Menorah
When the Maccabees returned to the Temple after having defeated the Syrian
Greeks, they needed to replace numerous Temple vessels which had either been
stolen, defiled, or broken. Of special importance in the Chanukah story was
the fact that the golden Menorah of the Sanctuary was no longer present,
having been stolen by Antiochus four years earlier. As a temporary measure,
the Jews fashioned a Menorah made out of iron. When they became more
affluent they replaced this Menorah with one of silver, and later still they
were able to replace the silver Menorah with one of gold (Rosh Hashanah 24b).
The seven-branched Menorah is described in great detail in the Torah (Exodus
25:31-40). Even so, the Torah omits one very basic detail which has led to
divergent opinions on the matter: whether the Menorah's branches were
straight or curved.
There are a number of archeological finds which may shed light upon this
question. A coin minted by Mattathias Antigonus circa 40 BCE depicts a
candelabra with curved branches. As this was a Jewish coin it has been
argued that this depiction surely was meant to be an accurate representation
of the actual Temple vessel, lending support to the theory that the Menorah
of the Sanctuary had curved branches.
Another depiction from around the same time was found in the Jewish Quarter
of the Old City of Jerusalem and it shows a portion of a 7-branched
candelabra with curved branches The ornamentation is excessive for what is
described in the Torah, but it would not be surprising for the artist to
have made such an error since the Menorah of the Sanctuary was only rarely
visible to the general public. Those who assume this to be a depiction of
the Sanctuary Menorah would argue that while the artist may have guessed at
the finer details of the cups and flower designs, the overall shape of the
branches would be easily remembered and thus would not have differed
significantly from the original.
One of the most famous depictions of a 7-branched candelabra from the Temple
is found upon the Arch of Titus in Rome. The triumphal arches of that time
were meant to serve as historical records of the events they depicted and
are therefore assumed to be very accurate. In one of the scenes on this arch
a procession carries the Temple vessels out of captured Jerusalem, and
featured among the treasures is a candelabra. The prominence given to this
candelabra ostensibly is an indication of its importance, which leads many
to speculate that this is the Menorah from the Sanctuary. As can be clearly
seen in the picture, the branches are curved.
Others argue that this surely could not have been the Menorah of the
Sanctuary since the base is nothing like we would expect the real Menorah to
have. First, its two-tiered, octagonal design is a novelty. Second,
archeologists have concluded that some of the creatures depicted on its
panels are sea serpents, and Jews would not have allowed such heathen images
in the Temple.
In stark contrast to the above finds is the image shown here of a drawing
attributed to the hand of Rambam (Maimonides). Unlike the previous pieces of
evidence which may or may not have been depicting the actual Menorah of the
Temple, this drawing does just that. It is intended to be an accurate
rendering of what the Menorah looked like, and while it is not drawn to
scale, all of its components and dimensions are labelled. From the fact that
the curvature of the base is drawn so precisely, most likely with the aid of
a compass, it is apparent that the artist could just have easily drawn
curved branches had he so desired. We may conclude that, in the view of
Rambam, the Menorah of the Temple had straight branches. Below is a 3-D
rendering of what the Rambam Menorah would have looked like.
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