The Basics of Judaism: Messiah and the Next World (including Reward & Punishment): The Afterlife:
What do the Jews believe about the afterlife?
The Jewish beliefs about the afterlife involve two ideas:
(1) that people are rewarded or punished as soon as they die (or perhaps a year later; see Shab.152b);
(2) that when this world comes to an end, everyone who ever lived
will be physically resurrected and will then be rewarded or punished.
The resurrection of the dead is a key Jewish belief; see Daniel 12:2, Isaiah 26:9 and Ezekiel Ch.37.
Maimonides lists belief in the resurrection as the
last of his 13 principles of the Jewish faith.
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