A minimum(1)of eight people - a Kohen, a Levi, five Yisraelim and an
additional person for maftir(2)- are called to the Torah every Shabbos
morning. If a Kohen is unavailable, either a Levi or a Yisrael is called
instead of him, but if a Yisrael is called instead of a Kohen, then a Levi
can no longer be called after him.(3)If a Levi is unavailable, then the
same Kohen who was called for Kohen is called again.(4)
1.The person being called should take the shortest possible route
bimah so that there is no unnecessary delay. If all of the routes are
equal in distance, he should ascend from the right side.(5)
2. Before reciting the blessing,(6 the oleh (the one receiving
aliyah) should look inside the Torah to see where the koreh will begin
reading. He then rolls up the scroll and recites Barechu followed by the
first blessing. Alternatively, he may leave the scroll unrolled but should
close his eyes while reciting Barechu and the blessing.(7)
3. After the reading is over, the sefer should be rolled up and
final blessing recited. The final blessing should not be recited over an
open sefer even if one keeps his eyes closed.
4. The blessings must be recited loud enough so that at least
are able to hear them. The poskim are extremely critical of those who
recite the blessings in an undertone.(8)
WHO IS CALLED TO THE TORAH?
It is appropriate and preferable to call to the Torah only those who
are God-fearing Jews who observe the mitzvos.Under no circumstances is it
permitted to call non-believers to the Torah, for their blessings are not
considered blessings at all. If absolutely necessary, it may be permitted
to accord them honors that do not necessitate a blessing, e.g., hagbahah
Most often the aliyos are allocated in rotating order or at the
gabbai's discretion. But it is a long-standing tradition which has become
universally accepted to mark milestone events by receiving an aliyah.
People marking such events are called chiyuvim, since custom dictates that
they are obligated to receive an aliyah. Sometimes, however, there are not
enough aliyos for all of the people who are chiyuvim.(10) Based on the
opinion of the majority of the poskim, the following, in order of
priority, is a list of the chiyuvim who are entitled to an aliyah(11):
1. A groom(12) on the Shabbos before his wedding [or on the
before he leaves his hometown to travel to his wedding].
2. A(13) child(14) who becomes bar mitzvah on that Shabbos.(15)
3. The father of a newborn(16) boy or girl, if the mother is in
the first time since giving birth.(17)
4. A groom on the Shabbos after his wedding, if the wedding took
Wednesday or later in the week.
5. One who has a Shabbos yahrtzeit(.18)
6. The father of a baby boy(19) whose bris will be that Shabbos or
the coming week.(20)
7. A groom on the Shabbos after his wedding, if his wedding took
8. One who has a yahrtzeit during the upcoming week.(21)
9. One who must recite the ha-gomel blessing.(22)
10. One who is embarking on or returning from a journey.
11. An important guest.
CONSECUTIVE ALIYOS FOR RELATIVES
In order to avoid ayin ha-ra, a "bad omen," the gabbai does not call a
father and a son, or two brothers [who share a father] for consecutive
aliyos.(23) Even if the parties involved are not concerned with ayin ha-ra
and wish to be called consecutively, it is not permitted.(24) Moreover,
even if the gabbai mistakenly did call the relative for a consecutive
aliyah, the one who was called should remain in his seat and not accept
the aliyah(25). If, however, the mistake was realized only after he
ascended the bimah, then he is not instructed to descend.(26)
L'chatchilah, even brothers who share only a mother, or even a grandfather
and his son's son,(27) should not be called for consecutive aliyos. If,
however, there is a need to do so, or if - b'diavad - the call to ascend
to the bimah was already made, it is permitted for them to accept the
aliyah.(28) All other relatives may be called consecutively even
The consecutive aliyos restriction does not apply:
If the consecutive aliyah is the maftir on a day when a second Sefer
Torah is read for maftir, e.g., on Yom Tov or Rosh Chodesh, or when the
Four Parashiyos are read.(29)
In a congregation where the names of the olim are not used when they
called for an aliyah. While most Ashkenazic congregations today do use
names when calling the olim, in some congregations no names are used for
the shevi'i or acharon aliyos.(30)
To hagbahah and gelilah, in a congregation where names are not used
calling up for hagbahah and gelilah.(31)
If another person was called for his aliyah between them and that
happened not to be in shul or was unavailable to receive his aliyah.(32)
1 Some congregations add aliyos while others do not. Since both
have a basis in halachah, each congregation should follow its own custom.
It is preferable not to call more than eleven people altogether; Be'er
Heitev 284:3, alluded to by Sha'ar ha-Tziyun 284:5.
2 Who can be either a Kohen, Levi or Yisrael. Those congregations
aliyos may also call a Kohen or a Levi for the last aliyah (called
acharon), but should not call a Kohen or a Levi for any of the other
additional aliyos; Mishnah Berurah 135:36-37.
3 O.C. 135:6.
4 O.C. 135:8.
5 O.C. 141:7.
6 A bachelor (whose custom is not to wear a tallis) should don one
receiving an aliyah on Shabbos or Yom Tov mornings. But he need not put on
a tallis when recieving an aliyah at other times (Monday and Thursday or
Rosh Chodesh, etc); Halichos Shelomo 12, note 29.
7 Mishnah Berurah 139:19. The third choice, which is to leave the
open but turn one's head to the left, is not recommended by the poskim,
including the Mishnah Berurah.
8 O.C. 139:6. See Chayei Adam 31:12.
9 Igros Moshe O.C. 3:12,21,22.
10 A general rule is that members of a shul have priority over non-
members, even if the non-member's chiyuv takes priority over the member's.
11 This list covers the Shabbos Kerias ha-Torah only.
12 Who has not been married before.
13 If both the aufruf and the bar mitzvah want the same aliyah,
one who is a greater talmid chacham has priority. If that cannot be
determined, then the two should draw lots. Lots should be drawn whenever
two chiyuvim lay equal claim to an aliyah.
14 The father of the child, however, is not a chiyuv at all; Sha'ar
15 According to some opinions, the same chiyuv applies even if the
became bar mitzvah during the past week; Harav C. Kanivesky (Ishei
Yisrael, pg. 409).
16 Even if the baby was stillborn; Sha'arei Efrayim 2:5.
17 If the wife is not in shul, then the husband has an obligation
receive an aliyah when 40 days have elapsed from the birth of a male
child, or 80 days from the birth of a female child.
18 A yahrtzeit chiyuv is only for a father or a mother. A yahrtzeit
father has priority over a yahrzeit for a mother; Kaf ha-Chayim 284:6.
19 A father who is naming a baby girl on Shabbos has priority over
father of a baby boy whose bris will take place during the week; Da'as
20 According to some opinions, if the bris will take place on
then the father is a greater chiyuv than a yahrtzeit on that Shabbos;
Ishei Yisrael, pg. 410.
21 If two people have yahrtzeit during the week, the one whose
is earlier in the week has priority; Kaf ha-Chayim 284:6.
22 Ha-gomel can be recited without an aliyah.
23 O.C. 141:6. This holds true even for shevi'i and maftir, unless
maftir is a boy under bar mitzvah; Mishnah Berurah 141:20.
24 Mishnah Berurah 141:19. Aruch ha-Shulchan 141:8 maintains,
that one who is unconcerned with ayin ha-ra may do as he wishes.
25 Be'er Heitev 141:5; Sha'arei Efrayim 1:33.
26 Mishnah Berurah 141:18.
27 But a grandfather and his daughter's son are permitted to be
consecutive aliyos; Kaf ha-Chayim 141:27.
28 Sha'arei Efrayim 1:33.
29 Mishnah Berurah 141:20. Some poskim do not recommend relying on
leniency when no Kaddish is recited between the aliyos, e.g., Chol ha-Moed
Pesach (Sha'arei Efrayim 1:32), while others are not particular about that
(Aruch ha-Shulchan 141:8). On Simchas Torah, however, all poskim are
lenient about this; see Yechaveh Da'as 3:50.